Why so many languages invented words for colors in the same order.
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In 1969, two Berkeley researchers, Paul Kay and Brent Berlin, published a book on a pretty groundbreaking idea: that every culture in history, when they developed their languages, invented words for colors in the exact same order. They claimed to know this based off of a simple color identification test, where 20 respondents identified 330 colored chips by name. If a language had six words, they were always black, white, red, green, yellow, and blue. If it had four terms, they were always black, white, red, and then either green or yellow. If it had only three, they were always black, white, and red , and so on. The theory was revolutionary — and it shaped our understanding of how color terminologies emerge.
Read more on the research mentioned in this video:
Cook, Kay, and Regier on the World Color Survey: goo.gl/MTUi9C
Stephen C. Levinson on Yele color terms: goo.gl/CYDfvw
John A. Lucy on Hanunó'o color terms: goo.gl/okcyC3
Loreto, Mukherjee, and Tria on color naming population simulations: goo.gl/rALO1S
To learn more about how your language's color words can affect the way you think, check out this video lecture: goo.gl/WxYi1q
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Rojo (ro-ho) red
Naranja (na-nan-ha) orange
Amarillo (a-mah-ee-yo) yellow
Verde (ver-da) green
Azul (a zool) blue
Morado (moh-ra-do) purple
Gris (grease) gray
Negro (ne-gro) black
Blanco (blan-co) white
Cafe (ca-fai) brown
Turquesa (tour-ca-sah) turquoise
Rosa (ro-sah) pink
Marrón (mah-run) marroon
Beige (besh) beige
And many more (roughly pronounced, write for more colors/shades/hues/questions)
In Arabic we have a name for every color that exists and that's because we name the color by the most common thing that has the color. A light blue would be *SAMAWI* from the word *SAMA* whish means sky, a light green would be *TOFFAHI* from the word *TOFFAH* which means apple, A purple would be *BANAFSAJI* from the word *BANAFSAJ* which means violet, A grey would be *RAMADI* from the word *RAMAD* which means ash, A brown would be *BUNNI* from the word *BUNN* which means coffee, there are so many other examples.
At 1:30 they mention that blue is a basic color in Mandarin, but my parents told me that a lot of people just used the same word for blue and green until fairly recently (my dad still does this sometimes).
In classic Urdu and Persian poetry, I've noticed that many poets would often refer to the sky and the ground as the same colour (ie. Green) but on varying tones.
Like really light green would be used for the sky, but dark green would be used for describing forests, grass, etc. Same would go for water, but in comparison to sky. They'd always be mindful of referencing the plants first, then they sky, and finally the water. Teh order for the water and sky could be reversed (it doesnt matter), but a reference to plants would always be there.
Even when describing settings like the desert, where there are no plants at all, they'd somehow refer to plants for the sky.
Although there is now a word for blue, it always struck me hard that they wouldn't use it, despite a few even more dated uses of the word for 'blue' around that time those classic poetries were written.
Great video - very educational and well presented. This summer I was doing research into colors in order to peg things right in an historical book and came across the pitfall of Blue not being usable and then struggling to figure out what to use in its place. [Hah - I wish I found this video when I was doing my research. Definitely goes into my 'favorites']
I've been wondering the same since a couple of years ago.
In the RGB model, I find it weird that the three secondary colors (cyan, magenta and yellow) stablish what the tertiary colors will be, but some sides are more distinctable than others, for which there are no words or names that sound common...
1st level: RED - GREEN - BLUE - (RED AGAIN)
2nd level: RED - yellow - GREEN - cyan - BLUE - magenta - (RED AGAIN)
3rd level: RED - orange - YELLOW - yellowgreen? - GREEN - ????? - CYAN - ????? - BLUE - ????? - MAGENTA - deep pink? - (RED AGAIN)
And what to say when you use different shades or tones of the spectrum? Like brown, pink, or one of my favorite "teams": purple, olive and teal, for which, by the way, there's no common word in Spanish. There is a couple of names for teal, which are "cerceta" or "trullo", but basically no one that I know uses any of those terms. People tend to call it "verde azul" or "azul verde" (which are "blue green" and "green blue"), or to put it in one word they would use something like "esmeralda" or "jade" (even if that's not the exact color).
And something that I don't get is why in digital colors the pink color is lighter than light pink (?). I just don't get it. Why when you name a color, you don't base on the exact medium points (for example, deep pink is 255, 20, 147 in RGB, but then the color 255, 0, 128 has no name)?
Tell me again why W.H.R. River's hypothesis about the natives of New Guinea is “racist”? It is well known that numerous variables in the environment cause a wide range of diversity when it comes to evolution. Although in itself, it is imprecise to convey evolutionary progression as a sort of systemized genetic ascension, it still does not fall within any description of racism. It was and is not uncommon for scientists to postulate such ideas, especially at the turn of the 20th century. The man was a renowned anthropologist and psychiatrist who helped shell-shocked soldiers from WWI, utilizing techniques that were ahead of their time, among the many other contributions he made to the world. Labeling his conjectures as racist is a culpable act of misinformation and does not belong in empirical commentary or any other venue intended for science, especially for major digital media companies like Vox.
Here are some colors in Japanese.
yellow kiiro(or yellow)
blue ao(or blue)
purple murasaki(or purple)
pink pinku(or momoiro)
red aka(or reddo)
orange orange(or daidai)
brown brown(or brown)
black kuro(or blacku)
gray haiiro(or grey)
white shiro(or white)
The vocabularies in our language are becoming more and more English.
More and more languages are imported and vocabularies are replaced in Japanese.
What we used to call "Keitai-denwa" are now "Smartphone（スマートフォン）".
We don't have a original Japanese word for "card" So we just say card(カード) .
We don't say "zubon" anymore. We say "pants".
There are even words that were changed like paso-com(short for personal computer)and it's on the dictionary.
"I bought pants at the department store with my credit card" will be like
"department store de pants wo credit card de katta" in english this will be like
"department store at pants the credit card with bought" (yes everything is backwards)
Pronunciations are different from that of in english, but I feel like we are abandoning our language.
Maybe it's our nature to do so. We have 2 alphabets (and a bunch of Chinese characters) and one of it, which is called Katakana, is used to make a foreign word into Japanese.
For example: Eng：pants→JP：パンツ(pronounsed pantsu)
Why did I even write this here. Maybe I'm just tired. So longaybowser!
Why on the earth there wasn't anything in this video mentioning human eye anatomy? This was ridiculous! I felt like the video was cut in the half, neglecting completely something so important to the subject and so obvious to be compared to the other studies...
Almost everyone here is having a hard time contemplating the sentence _"Blue was a rare color before manufacturing"_ and bring up the sky and seas.
Well, I myself also have thought of it like that before. But think of the sky and the seas. First, the sky. Does the sky only possess one color all throughout? No. It changes from day to night, and according to the weather. Yes, it's blue on clear days, but also white on cloudy days, grey when it rains, black when it's night, a vast spectrum of red (including yellow, and orange) during dawn/twilight. Plus, aside from the sky, there isn't much blue in nature. Why would early people bother to name a color when you can only witness it from the sky, a thing that cannot be possessed nor touched, and changes color from time to time? And the seas are the same. Water is clear, a body of water only reflects the colors around it. It can be brown from soil under, green from algae, red from natural chemicals, and blue, red, white or black according to the color of the sky. The sky and bodies of water aren't blue, we just learned to associate them with blue.
If the pixels in the eyes see red, then you see food (meat) and you see disease and death (blood). Blue and green are constants and don't evoke danger. Red is also on the beaks of many birds who feed their young by regurgitation. Also notable is how in races/counties who have primarily blue eyes traditionally use colors differently than countries/races who have primarily dark eyes. South Africans and Mexicans use reds, yellows and oranges, while Scandinavians, US and Europeans use blues, browns, and greens. Older people tend to use cooler colors while younger people use warm colors.
One thing not mentioned in the video that might be another possibility is the nature of our photoreceptors in the eye that are responsive to different wavelengths of light, the cones. There are more so-called "red" cones than "blue" cones, the special cells in the eye that receives light information and send signals to the brain. Perhaps that is another reason why red is more prominent in the naming systems - our eyes are just constructed in a way that is more sensitive to those wavelengths. Same explanation can be said for green vs blue. According to this video green is often higher in the naming hierarchy than blue and it turns out there are more "green" cones than blue cones.
Maybe someone else left a similar comment but I am not going to search through over 4000 comments to see. This is just my two cents.
If you look at ancient civilizations, the colour if their pottery also points toward the advancement of there empire. First black figure pottery, then red figure pottery. More advanced civilizations will have blue as their third jump and after that it would be the rest of the colours
Sadly they never studied the treasure chest : Indian Cultures, where there are names for all primary colors as well as colors relatable with objects.
Ex: Primary ( using only Hindi)
Laal : Red
Hara : Green
Neela : Blue
Kaala : Black
Safed : White
Bhura : Brown etc
Peela : Yellow
Santrila : Orange ( Santra- fruit )
Kesariya : Saffron ( Kesar-plant )
Aasmani : Sky Blue ( Aasman-Sky )
Gehua : Wheatish - Yellow Brown
( Gehu - Wheat ) etc
And this is only one language
I would like to know the references to the greek colors at 2:25. Normally, πορφυρός means deep red. It comes near purple territory but definitely not that purple. Also κυανός does not mean indigo, but a blue closer to cyan. The swatches are not very indicative of the ancient greek color names I (strongly) believe.
An interesting fact, the first three football teams in my country literally followed the list of the colors in this video for their team colors, the first black-white (it was red-white at the beginning which is close but then changed to the black-white), the second is red-yellow, and the third is yellow-blue(dark). Kinda interesting to see that they literally followed the natural order of the color identification.
Anunciado durante a Gamescom 2017, uma das maiores feiras de videogame do mundo, o remake de Secret of Mana é, desde o início, um projeto pensado para agradar aos fãs de longa data e atrair jogadores novatos com um gameplay mais acessível.
Não se engane: a versão 2018 de Secret of Mana está mais para uma recriação do que uma mera remasterização com pequeno ajustes gráficos. O que temos aqui é um jogo completamente atualizado, com personagens redesenhados que ganharam nova vida graças à estética cartunesca.
Se, por um lado, as mudanças visuais foram projetadas para atrair novatos, por outro, algumas pessoas podem torcer o nariz pela simplicidade da nova abordagem - especialmente no que diz respeito aos cenários e criaturas do mundo.
Os cenários coloridos, por exemplo, ainda que estejam bem representados, trazem pouca variedade e deixam game com cara de “jogo de celular”. Isso fica mais evidente pela estrutura do game, já que muitas áreas estão completamente vazias e monótonas. Nesse quesito, Secret of Mana não tem vantagem em ter o fator nostalgia a seu favor.
O remake utiliza a clássica perspectiva de visão aérea, com a câmera posicionada acima dos personagens. É possível arrastar as bordas da tela manualmente para ter uma visão mais ampla do ambiente, o que é bastante útil para momentos de exploração.
O brilho da era noventista, mas com ressalvas.
Antes de tudo, é importante ressaltar que não há legendas em português, então o melhor a fazer é jogar com textos em inglês. A história continua sendo o ponto mais alto de Secret of Mana e, novamente, coloca o jogador no controle de três adoráveis personagens: Randi, Primm e Popoi - é possível jogar em modo cooperativo local para até três usuários.
O objetivo do grupo é lutar contra um império traidor ao mesmo tempo em que tenta recuperar o poder da Mana para restaurar a paz. O grande problema é que, embora os gráficos estejam atualizados, as animações ficaram presas ao passado. Em vez de despertar o sentimento de nostalgia, a falta de capricho passa a impressão de que o remake foi feito às pressas.
A jogabilidade à la Zelda foi aprimorada e permite desferir ataques de qualquer ângulo. Os inimigos também demonstram mais inteligência, uma vez que agora eles têm a opção de atacar a partir de qualquer ponto do cenário.
Ainda que a movimentação esteja mais fluida, parece haver algum problema técnico relacionado ao impacto dos golpes. Isso porque há momentos em que o personagem simplesmente não acerta o ataque, mesmo posicionado a uma distância razoável do oponente.
Além disso, a interface dos menus ficou bem aquém do esperado, com abas confusas e muito mal posicionadas. Há, no entanto, uma opção de mapear os itens essenciais nos botões do joystick ou teclado, o que facilita muito a organização na hora de combates mais exigentes.
O remake de Secret of Mana mantém a essência da pérola dos RPGs de ação dos anos 90, mas comete muitos deslizes ao tentar mexer em time que está ganhando. Menus engessados, sistema de combate com problemas técnicos e animações presas ao passado impedem o relançamento de ser a experiência definitiva, apesar de que possa valer para quem nunca experimentou o jogo original.