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The Most Extreme Births In The Animal Kingdom
 
03:46
There is no human mom in this world who would say giving birth is easy peasy. But there are some mothers out there in the animal kingdom who go through the extreme to give birth to their offsprings. Here is why mothers all around the earth deserve more than a thank you. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 6592580 Science Insider
Why Do Wisdom Teeth Suck?
 
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Every year, 5 million Americans have their wisdom teeth removed. These pesky molars can cause infections tooth decay, and even tumors. The problem? Wisdom teeth often can’t fit in our mouths. But that wasn’t always the case. Early human ancestors used these teeth to grind up tough, uncooked food. ------------------------------------------------------ #WisdomTeeth #ToothDecay Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider Why Do Wisdom Teeth Suck? ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video:
Views: 3019681 Science Insider
Award-Winning Footage Of The Microsopic World Around Us
 
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This year’s Nikon Small World Motion Photomicrography Competition has given us a fascinating glimpse into the realm of the extremely tiny. Watch a flea giving birth and a zebrafish embryo developing its complex nervous system. And that’s just the start. Learn more about this year's submissions: https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2018/09/27/1577365/0/en/Developing-Sensory-Nervous-System-of-a-Zebrafish-Wins-2018-Nikon-Small-World-in-Motion-Competition.html Check out the gallery page: https://www.nikonsmallworld.com/galleries/2018-small-world-in-motion-competition ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------
Views: 1262465 Science Insider
What Happens If You Hold Your Pee In For Too Long
 
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Everyone holds in their pee every now and then. And that's okay! Just don't do it too often, or it could lead to some serious problems down the road. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------- Following is the transcript of the video: You’re about an hour and a half into the movie and, boy, are you regretting that large soda. You can hold it... but should you? Peeing is pretty important. Your kidneys filter excess water and waste out of your blood and that urine needs somewhere to go: your bladder. Normally, it’ll hold 1-2 cups comfortably. But if you make a habit of holding your pee for long periods of time, you can actually stretch your bladder to easily hold even more. Case in point, one study found that nurses who often held it in all day due to job constraints had nearly double the normal bladder capacity! And they were totally fine. But this doesn’t mean you should hold it in if you can help it. Because your bladder may not be the only thing to stretch. You may also stretch your external sphincter muscles. Those are important muscles connected to the outside of your bladder that are the gate-keepers of your golden liquid. Clench them and you hold in the gold. Relax them and you release the flood! But if you overstretch them, you can actually lose control. This is rare, and usually takes decades of holding it too long to reach that point, but once you do, it can lead to some awkward or even dangerous situations. For example, with less overall control, you risk leaking urine when your bladder is full and not emptying it all the way when you finally do go. Not only can this increase your need to urinate more often since your bladder fills up quicker, it can also lead to a serious disorder called urinary retention, where you end up with too much urine in your bladder for too long. And since your bladder is basically a warm, wet bag of body waste, it’s the PERFECT breeding ground for harmful bacteria that’ll cause all sorts of damage. Even worse, if you’re really unlucky and retain too much urine, it may back up into your kidneys. Which could lead to kidney failure, and ultimately death. The good news is that you’re more likely to just lose control of your muscles and pee waaaay before your bladder hits that point. But why not just reduce the risk all together and go to the bathroom? Ok, ok, we get it. That movie is absolutely gripping. Luckily... You’ll be fine if you only hold it in for a short time, every once in a while. So go ahead, hang in there... just don’t make a habit of it.
Views: 6715515 Science Insider
How To Keep Your Goldfish Alive For 15 Years
 
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The longest-living goldfish on record was 43 years old. But while they're supposed to live at least 15 years on average, yours might not have made it to its 5th birthday. The major problem is often toxin accumulation in the tank from fish poop. By seeding the tank with special bacteria, you can break these chemicals down and make the aquarium a safer home for your pet. Following is a transcript of the video: The longest-living goldfish on record was 43 years old. But chances are your goldfish didn't even live a quarter that long. In fact, most goldfish don't survive past their fifth birthday, and that's a major problem since they're supposed to live for about as long as your cat. So why are goldfish dying so young? The usual culprit behind your goldfish's untimely demise is, well, poop. You see, goldfish waste contains toxins like ammonia that can burn gills and even damage the brain. In the wild, this isn't a problem. Freshwater lakes and ponds are home to armies of bacteria that break it down into less harmful chemicals. But in your home tank, there's no bacteria to be found. You have to introduce it, and that's where a lot of goldfish owners slip up because you can't just buy a fish the same day you get your tank. The process of growing bacteria takes patience. First, you'll need to remove chlorine from your tank water using a conditioner. Chlorinated tap water is fine for you to drink since it kills off germs, but it's not so great for the bacteria you want to cultivate. Once you've created a safe space for the bacteria to grow, they'll come from all over: the air, the outside of the tank, and any rocks or plants you stick in the tank for decoration. You can also buy commercially sold bacteria cultures grown in labs. After that, all they need is dinner. Fish food will do. As the food breaks down, it releases ammonia for the bacteria to eat, and finally, you wait for a while. Depending on how much bacteria you start with, the process can take about two months. That's right, two months. But then there should be enough bacteria. You can double-check with a simple water test kit. But here's the thing, all the bacteria in the world won't keep your fish alive if the tank is too small. You see, as these bacteria gobble up goldfish poop, they produce some waste of their own, and if it's not sufficiently diluted, it can kill your goldfish. A dinky, single-gallon bowl is much too small, and even the 10-gallon tank you see in every pet store won't cut it. A single adult goldfish needs at least twice that much water to thrive. That's almost 40 kilograms of water, 2000 times heavier than your goldfish, and even with a huge tank, you'll still need to replace about 30% of the water every two weeks because besides poop, goldfish release hormones and pheromones into their environment, which, if left unchecked, can stunt their growth. That might help explain why goldfish in healthy environments can reach the size of an American football, while your last goldfish wasn't much bigger than your index finger. Once you have a big, detoxified tank, Goldie just needs one more thing: your attention. Because you're not swimming in the tank with her, it's hard to notice if something's wrong with, say, the water quality. So oftentimes new goldfish owners don't realize anything's amiss until it's too late, and common diseases like fin rot, white spot disease, and fungal infections have already taken hold. So it's a good idea to pay careful attention to how the water looks and smells, and anyway, spending time with your goldfish will be worth it since you can teach Goldie to swim through hoops and eat from your hand. For more information: http://starfisheries.com/best-practices/ ------------------------------------------------------ #Goldfish #Fish #ScienceInsider Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ How To Keep Your Goldfish Alive For 15 Years
Views: 1659338 Science Insider
Why Lice Are So Hard To Kill
 
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Lice can be hard to get rid of. In fact, head lice are now resistant to many over-the-counter treatments. Turns out, lice are a problem humans have been itching to fix for over 7 million years. Lice are small, tricky to spot, and can even hold their breath for eight hours, so they’ll be fine in the shower or in a pool. They’ve also developed resistance to many of our common treatments. In the last decade, experts have developed new weapons of attack, but we still haven’t managed to eradicate them altogether. Following is a transcript of the video: You might not have known this, but ancient Egypt was an itchy place to live. Lice were rampant. Cleopatra, for example, was buried with solid gold lice combs, while other Egyptians would shave their entire bodies to try and get rid of the parasites. So, it’s a problem we’ve had for a while, and probably won’t be solved anytime soon. Humans and lice have been living together for about 7 million years when our ancestors split from chimps, and we’ve been itching to get rid of them ever since. There are 532 species of lice out there, but let’s take a look at the most common type that plagues humans: Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). For starters, they have six legs, and each one has a tiny hook at the end that helps them climb from one head to another, latch onto your hair, and quickly crawl down to your scalp, where they’ll feast on your blood several times a day. And once they’ve made themselves comfortable, lice are tricky to spot. Adult lice, for example, are about as large as a sesame seed, while baby lice, or nymphs, are a fraction that size. Lice are well camouflaged too, matching the color of the hair around them. Not to mention, your scalp is a perfect breeding ground. In one day, a female louse can lay up to eight eggs. Those eggs only take about a week to hatch, and once they’re 10 days old, they’ll start laying eggs of their own. While it’s rare to find more than 20 live lice on any head, there could be dozens, or even, hundreds of dead bodies lingering on your scalp. Feeling itchy yet? Perhaps even worse is that they’re a pain to get rid of. Lice can hold their breath for eight hours, so they’ll be fine when you take a shower or go for a swim. They’re also notorious for developing resistance to insecticides. During WWII, for example, militaries dusted millions of Europeans with DDT to control lice-borne typhus, and thanks to our overuse of it, lice grew a resistance to the poison. Even today, we’re seeing the repercussion from it. Many over-the-counter shampoos and lotions use similar killing mechanisms to DDT, which has made it easier for lice, in some place, to grow resistant to these treatments as well. But scientists are striking back. In the last decade, experts have developed new weapons of attack for when initial over-the-counter treatments don’t work. Like prescription ivermectin lotion, which paralyzes lice by disrupting their nervous systems. And of course, shaving your head is a cheap and surefire bet, but let’s face it, most of us probably can’t pull off that look. ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Why Lice Are So Hard To Kill
Views: 1517807 Science Insider
The Most Terrifying Creatures Of The Deep Sea
 
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Do you like to swim in the ocean? It's great until you feel something brush your feet. Sure, it's probably a scrap of seaweed. But, it could be one of the hundreds of alien-looking aquatic animals living beneath the waves. At least, the ones we know about. ------------------------------------------------------ #DeepSeaCreatures #OceanLife Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ The Most Terrifying Creatures Of The Deep Sea Following is a transcript of the video:
Views: 1235695 Science Insider
How Sumo Wrestlers Stay Healthy On 7,000 Calories A Day
 
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Sumo wrestlers eat up to 7,000 calories a day and weigh as much as 400 pounds. Yet they don’t suffer from heart attacks, strokes, or other symptoms of obesity. Their secret is in their name—sumo wrestler. Regular intense exercise prevents the build-up of visceral fat, which causes metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Following is a transcript of the video: Sumo wrestlers eat up to 7,000 calories a day and weigh 300 to 400 pounds or two to three times as much as the average adult. While that may not sound like the healthiest lifestyle, you shouldn't judge a book, or a body, by its cover. Take a closer look, and you'll discover that it really is what's on the inside that counts. Normally, people with obesity store a portion of their extra fat deep inside the abdomen, where it wraps around the pancreas, liver, and other vital organs. We call this visceral fat. It pollutes the blood with molecules that can cause inflammation, and this is why obesity can lead to health issues like high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, and heart attacks. But sumo wrestlers don't usually suffer from these symptoms. So what's their trick? CT scans reveal that sumo wrestlers don't have much visceral fat at all. Instead, they store most of their fat right underneath the skin. That's why scientists think sumo wrestlers are healthy. They have normal levels of triglycerides, a type of fat in their blood, and unexpectedly low levels of cholesterol, both of which lower their risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. So how did they hit the jackpot on fat? The secret's in their name: sumo wrestler. Studies show that intense exercise may prevent the buildup of visceral fat. Basically, it has to do with how exercise increases a hormone called adiponectin. Adiponectin guides glucose and fat molecules out of our blood stream, where they could build up as visceral fat, and instead puts them underneath the skin. Mind you, sumo wrestlers get a lot of exercise. At a sumo stable, or heya, in Japan, training starts as early as 5 a.m. and can last for up to five hours straight, and it's nothing like what you'd expect to find at your typical group fitness class. For example, during an exercise called butsukari-geiko, wrestlers take turns repeatedly hitting and pushing each other until they collapse to the floor from exhaustion. And then, of course, there's the match, where wrestlers try to shove their opponent out of the ring or force them to touch the ground with any body part other than the soles of their feet. But as soon as the exercise stops, so does its benefits. When sumo wrestlers retire, they have to seriously cut calories or they become at risk for cardiovascular disease. That might explain why retired wrestlers reportedly die an estimated 10 years younger than the average Japanese citizen. So while the thought of eating 7,000 calories a day might be appealing, you probably shouldn't. Unless you're spending most of your day trying to topple a 400-pound man. ------------------------------------------------------ #Sumo #Wrestlers #ScienceInsider Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider Business Insider/Tech Insider on Amazon Prime: http://read.bi/PrimeVideo ------------------------------------------------------ How Sumo Wrestlers Stay Healthy On 7,000 Calories A Day
Views: 652064 Science Insider
The Most Impressive Dads In The Animal Kingdom
 
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These 4 animal dads do a lot of work for their children. Some of them don't eat while the kids develop, or defend them and make sure they survive. These dads come from the world of fish, bugs, and birds. Using different strategies and making various sacrifices, they help their offspring survive. ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video: Imagine you’re about to be a proud, new father. But first, you have to give birth. To 2,000 babies. Sounds painful, right? Well, if you’re a male seahorse, that’s part of the job. Turns out, there are lots of animal dads out there who do all the hard work. The hardhead catfish takes parental sacrifice to the extreme. To protect the eggs, he’ll hold them in his mouth. And it’s not just one or two eggs. It can be as many as 65. The eggs take up so much space that he can’t eat because he might swallow one. So, he’ll fast for over two months, while the eggs develop. Believe it or not, the male giant water bug takes on an even heavier load. Females lay up to 100 eggs on the male’s back. He’ll carry the eggs for the next 2 to 3 weeks as they develop. But during that time, the eggs and mucus glue his wings down, ...so that he can no longer fly, making him vulnerable to predators. Plus, the eggs weigh him down so much...he has to rely on slower, easier prey like snails. Or he just doesn’t eat at all! But it’s worth it, to ensure his future offspring are safe. Lucky for the water bug, however, he can return to his regular life after the eggs hatch, and the babies fend for themselves. That’s not the case for the male rhea. He doesn’t just stick around to raise his chicks on his own. He raises multiple families at once. During breeding season, the male rhea will build a nest to attract as many females as possible. He’ll form a group with about 5 to 7 females and mate with them that season. Females lay their eggs in his nest, and then skedaddle — for good. Leaving him to raise and defend all 30 or so chicks — until they’re about 6 months old. Talk about the challenges of being an only parent! Last but not least is the male emperor penguin who does a lot of the hard work early on. Females entrust their eggs to the males. But since penguins don’t have nests, males must play a delicate balancing act. Keeping the egg warm atop their feet, and away from the frozen ground they stand on, They can’t hunt or forage for food. They have to stay put — and protect the egg. But the hard work doesn’t end there. By the time the chicks hatch, the fathers are starved from fasting for weeks on end. But the chicks need to be fed. So dad manages to regurgitate some food from his esophagus to feed the chick until mom returns. Yum, Thanks, dad. Looks like there are a lot of animal dads who deserve an award for Father Of The Year. ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ The Most Impressive Dads In The Animal Kingdom
Views: 685764 Science Insider
Never Eat The ‘Clean’ Part Of Moldy Bread
 
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It’s not safe to eat bread or fruit contaminated with mold, even if you cut away the moldy parts. When mold reproduces, it spreads throughout your food, hiding in places you can't see. And while many species of mold are harmless, others can make you very sick. It's just not worth the risk. ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video: Narrator: We've all been there. The loaf of bread you bought a couple weeks ago is starting to grow mold and you're wondering "Maybe I can just cut the part where I can see the mold and eat the clean part." It turns out, even though you cannot see it, your whole loaf of bread could be teaming with fungus. Following is a transcript of the video. You're all ready to make the sandwich of your dreams. Turkey, tomato, and swiss on a bed of romaine lettuce sandwiched between two slices of sourdough. Classic. Oh no, what's this? Mold? But look, good new. The mold's only on part of the bread. So, I can just cut that away and be fine, right? There's no such thing as a "clean" part of moldy bread. That's because mold is a fungus, like mushrooms. The caps on the surface are easy enough to spot. But there's a vast network of subterranean "roots" called hyphae that you can't see. So let's take another look at that bread of yours. Ugh, disgusting! Maybe you can just grab another piece from the same loaf. Well, that's not such a great idea, either. Because by the time mold sprouts its fuzzy head, what you're really seeing is the reproductive part of the mold called sporangiums. Each sporangium releases tens of thousands of spores. So, even though you can't see it, that entire loaf could be teeming with fungus. But it seems like such a waste to just throw it out. After all, you eat mold on purpose all the time, like the mold that goes into making cheese, soy sauce, and even life-saving antibiotics, like penicillin. Eating a little bit on your bread can't be that bad, right? Ultimately, it's a gamble. Just like eating a wild mushroom, many are fine. But some can be deadly. Mold is the same way. There are thousands of different species of mold — many of which are harmless to humans. But since so many types can sprout up on food it's nearly impossible to know if what you're eating is safe. Cladosporium, for example, can sometimes trigger allergies but is generally harmless. Whereas other molds, like Penicillium crustosum, produce harmful poisons called mycotoxins. An elderly couple in 2005, for example, was admitted to the hospital after eating a can of soup contaminated with this kind of mold. They had severe muscle tremors but eventually recovered. But other molds, like Rhizopus stolonifer, can have permanent effects. And you might recognize this mold since it commonly grows on bread: blue-green, with black splotches, and super fuzzy. In rare cases, it can prompt a deadly infection called Zygomycosis, which causes your blood to clot and can, ultimately, starve your cells of oxygen to the point that they die. And it's not like bacteria where a little heat will eliminate the threat because high temperatures won't break down the mycotoxins. And since you have no clue which one you're about to put in your mouth, ask yourself: Is it really worth the risk?
Views: 2964321 Science Insider
What Happens When A Night Owl Wakes Up Early
 
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There is a lot of advice out there about how to get the best night of sleep. But the fact that you can't sleep might not be your fault. It turns out, night owls have an internal clock that functions differently. Forcing them to wake up early could have serious health consequences. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------- Following is a transcript of the video: There is plenty of advice for how to improve your sleep. Go to bed at the same time. Avoid digital screens after dark. And don’t hit snooze. But it all comes down to the same assumption: That YOU’RE doing something wrong. When, in fact, it may not be your fault, at all. Inside practically every organism on Earth there’s a clock that keeps order. Known as the circadian rhythm. For humans, it’s located in the part of our brains called the hypothalamus. And while it’s most famous for controlling our sleep cycles… it’s also responsible for helping primary organs like the brain, heart, and lungs, work in harmony. But not everyone’s circadian rhythm is the same. Night owls, for instance, generally feel tired later than early birds. Often because they produce high amounts of the sleep hormone, melatonin, later at night. And for most of human history that didn’t matter — since night owls could protect their tribes from nocturnal predators or their cities from cunning conquerors — but society has MADE it a problem in recent decades. An estimated 80% of Americans follow daily schedules that fall between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. Yet, nearly a third of the population considers themselves night owls. Which means they’d be better off with a schedule that looks more like this. This phenomenon is called social jetlag. It’s like the jetlag you feel after a long plane trip… but worse because it doesn’t disappear after a few days. And social jetlag is taking its toll on night owls of the world. Because, even if you get the recommended amount of sleep… knocking your circadian rhythm out of whack has consequences. For example, one study found that for every hour your circadian rhythm is out of syn …your risk of obesity increases by 33%. Also increasing your risk of the many health complications associated with obesity. And the problem isn’t just a physical one. In another study, people whose circadian rhythms were more than 2 hours off… reported notably more severe symptoms of depression. And since your circadian rhythm tends to shift as you age… social jetlag is especially apparent in teens. In fact, the CDC warns that most public schools across America start too early, before 8:30. Which, according to the nonprofit “Rand Corporation,” is costing the country $9 billion a year from mainly lost academic performance and car crashes from tired teens behind the wheel. Luckily, the circadian rhythm isn’t set in stone. Turns out, it’s largely triggered by light signals that strike your eye. So, when you first wake up, get outside and soak up some morning sun… or if that’s out of the question, make sure your home is well lit. It might just brighten your morning a little more.
Views: 1210586 Science Insider
Why You Can't Mix Blood Types
 
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While blood types have been around for at least 20 million years, doctors have only known about them for about 116 years. Prior to the 1900s, countless people died when they were injected with the wrong type of blood. This is because blood is composed of proteins called antigens that, when mixed with the wrong type, fight each other as if you're body was fighting an infection. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 454378 Science Insider
Why Cockroaches Are So Hard To Kill
 
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Cockroaches are one of the most widespread and resilient creatures on this planet. They are practically everywhere around us, hiding in the walls, sewers, and perhaps your cupboard. They are also one of the most hated creatures by humans. If you are like most people, you will become determined to kill all of the roaches when you see them in your house. Despite such hatred towards them, how do cockroaches manage to thrive all around the globe? Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------- Following is the transcript of the video: You might not want to think about this but over 3,500 species of cockroaches live on this planet. The good news? Only about 30 of those species have adapted to live around humans. The bad news? 30 species of cockroaches can live around us! Roaches are one of the most common pests in the US. So, it's no surprise that humans are always trying to kill them. But no matter how many times we stomp them, squash them, and bomb them with toxic chemicals, these pesky pests always seem to pop up time and time again. So what's going on? Let's take a closer look at the roach you probably know better than you'd like: Periplaneta Americana. AKA: the American Cockroach. But this name is misleading. This guy is actually from Africa, not America. It made its way to the US by infesting boats in the 16th century. And has been spreading to almost every corner in the world ever since. Turns out, it's one of the largest species of cockroach around. But that's not the only big thing about it. New research has revealed that it has a massive genome — one of the largest of any studied insect! And many of these genes are exactly what make this roach a master survivor. Let's start with its genes associated with something called chemoreception. That's how roaches smell and taste their environment. Turns out, they're actually way better at sniffing out and eating food than most other insects. The American roach has 154 olfactory receptors for smell and 544 gustatory receptors for taste — more than any other insect on the planet! As a result, these cockroaches are not picky eaters. Sure, they like cheese, meat, and sugar like the rest of us. But they'll also go for things like cardboard, book bindings, human toenails, rotting meat, blood, excrement, and even each other. That's right, these roaches have been known to eat other dead or crippled cockroaches — all in the name of survival. It sounds gross, but this diverse diet makes it easy to find a meal just about anywhere, even if it's poisonous to most animals. This roach has a bunch of genes called cytochrome p450s, which help it withstand poisonous chemicals like peppermint. These genes code for detoxification enzymes, which keep the insects safe. On top of that, this roach has a super-strong immune system that seeks out and kills harmful microbes and fungi, making the most unsanitary environment look like a 5-star hotel to the American cockroach. Not gross enough, yet? Well consider this: cockroaches can live for nearly a week without their heads. Yeah, that's not a myth. They don't have a highly-pressurized network of blood vessels like humans, so they don't bleed out. Instead, their necks actually seal off the opening. They can't regenerate a whole head, but roaches do have an impressive set of regenerative superpowers. For up to the first two years of its life, the American roach goes through a series of regenerative molts as it matures into an adult. During a single molt stage, it can replace lost limbs. And over a series of molts, it can regrow antennae and even its eyes. Roaches may be hard to kill, but there's an easy way to help keep them clear of your kitchen — Cleanliness! A roach won't just survive in unsanitary conditions but actually enjoys it. Its heightened senses mean it actually relishes rotting food. So, store food in airtight containers, cover trash bins, and keep your basement dry. It might also be smart to plug holes in your walls, unused electrical outlets, and especially drains since — get this — roaches can use your plumbing to climb from sewers to your bathroom sink.
Views: 5587530 Science Insider
The 5 Most Extreme Babies In The Animal Kingdom
 
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While human newborns are pretty incompetent at just about everything, other animal infants face intense survival situations from birth. Meet a cliff-jumping gosling, a baby shark that eats its siblings, and other extreme babies from across the animal kingdom. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 1019463 Science Insider
What Happens To Your Brain When You Get Blackout Drunk | The Human Body
 
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More than half of college students experience blackouts, according to studies. Alcohol, it turns out, interferes with the brain's ability to convert short term memories into long term ones. Since those memories don't get stored, you won't be able to recall them later. Following is a transcript of the video: Saturday, 12 PM. The light burns. Your head throbs. And you have no recollection of how you got back home. Don’t worry, you’re not alone. More than half of college students experience blackouts, according to several studies. And let’s be clear. Blacking out doesn’t mean passing out. You were probably awake and aware the entire night. So then, where did all those memories go? Let’s rewind to Friday night. Normally, whenever you have an experience — like a conversation — a part of your brain called the prefrontal lobe stores that information in short-term memory. Then, another part of your brain called the hippocampus weaves those experiences together so they can be stored away as long-term memories. So the next day you remember “the party” as a whole instead of “smell of sweat,” “house music,” “Jen was there.” But here’s the key part: storing these episodes in long-term memory requires special neurotransmitters. But your liquor shots prevent the neurotransmitters from working properly. So, instead of remembering the party, all you have is an incomplete or even empty file. And the amount of alcohol in your system at the time influences how much you remember. Let’s say you’re a 73 kg adult man. And you’ve done 8 shots in 1 hour. Your blood alcohol content is probably around 0.2% by this point— more than twice the legal limit for driving a car. And your brain may still be able to store some memories. So you end up with “islands” of memories separated by missing sections. That’s called a fragmentary blackout, aka a “greyout” or “brownout”. But if you keep pounding those shots, it gets worse. Within the next half hour, you pound back another 4 shots. Now your blood alcohol content hits around 0.3%, and your hippocampus goes dark. And full amnesia sets in. This is called an en bloc blackout. And once you wake up, that entire night could be blank. Push your BAC much higher than that and…you might die. And yet...your friends might not even realize you’re in the middle of a blackout, since the alcohol didn’t “delete” your long-term memories already safe in storage before the night began. So you can still carry on conversations and behave more or less like a typical person. To an extent. Blackouts aside, alcohol can still interfere with other regions of your brain including those responsible for reasoning and decision-making. So during blackouts, people have crashed cars gotten into fights and committed —or been the victims of — sexual assaults. They just might not remember it. That being said, not everyone gets blackouts. Your sex, body weight, and family history all play a roll. So that could explain why your friends recall the entire night despite downing just as much tequila. But it won’t save them from a wicked hangover the next morning. ------------------------------------------------------ #Drunk #Alcohol #ScienceInsider Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ What Happens To Your Brain When You Get Blackout Drunk | The Human Body
Views: 780014 Science Insider
How Hamsters Can Stuff So Much Food In Their Cheeks
 
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Hamsters can stuff their cheeks with up to 20% of their body weight. Most of the time, they fill their cheeks with food, but sometimes mother hamsters store their babies in their cheeks for protection. Hamster cheeks contain pouches that resemble small deflated balloons. As food enters, the pouch expands and retractor muscles squeeze the pouch and pull food back.  See more from April's Animals: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCgTpLnSqzJntGjHLfuE2WNA Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------- Following is the transcript of the video: How is it doing that?!! Hamsters, like Soda Pop, can stuff up to 20% of their body weight into their cheeks. For comparison, that’s like the average person carrying around 30 extra pounds of food—or about 120 quarter pounders. It would be a cool party trick, but not very comfortable…or, let’s face it, even possible. That’s where hamsters are different. But they don’t stuff their faces for parties … or even because they’re hungry. They do it to survive. In the wild—yes, there are actually wild hamsters—they eat all kinds of food—leaves, shoots, veggies, and fruit. What they don’t consume right away, they store in those cheeks, which have pouches that extend halfway down their body and expand like a balloon. Thank goodness we don’t have anything like that because it would probably look a little strange. But hamsters NEED to stuff their faces, no matter how goofy it might look. In fact, they have to eat around every 2 hours to function normally. But foraging for food this frequently would make them easy prey. Instead, they collect food at night, and what they don’t store they snack on along the way. So during the day they can hide from predators and munch on their hoard in safety. And, thanks to the pouches in their cheeks that stockpile can get enormous. Hamster burrows have been found with nearly 200 lbs of stored food! These cheeks also come with special retractor muscles that help the hamster stuff itself to maximum capacity. If you ever watch this in action you may notice that it reorients the food after plopping it in its mouth. What it’s actually doing is angling the food so it easily slips to the back of the pouch as more comes in. Once the food is well on its way—that’s when the retractor muscles come into play. When the pouch stretches, the muscles contract which pushes the food toward the back, preventing it from clogging up. Pretty impressive stuff! But that’s not as impressive as some of the other things hamsters can do with their cheeks. For starters, some species will hide their babies inside these pouches to keep them safe. And there are reports that others can inflate their pouches with air and use it as a flotation device for swimming! But DON’T try this at home. Only certain wild species do this, and we don’t want you to drown your poor hamster. We’d rather have you sit and enjoy the incredible cuteness of Soda Pop. Fun fact: Hamsters can run over 5 miles in a 24 hour period.
Views: 467698 Science Insider
What Activated Charcoal Actually Does To Your Body | The Human Body
 
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Activated charcoal is having a moment in food, beauty, and supplement industries right now. But how does it work? And is it even good for you? Following is a transcript of the video: Instagram is blowing up with black-looking food and beauty products. Thanks to this stuff. It’s called activated charcoal, or activated carbon. No, it’s not what you use to BBQ ribs. It’s what health-trend fanatics are using to detox, brighten skin, and whiten their teeth. But just because you can wash with it, eat it, and brush your teeth with it, doesn’t necessarily mean you should. The global market for activated charcoal is projected to reach $6.2 billion by 2022. An impressive feat, considering it comes from the same stuff as your grilling charcoal: burnt wood. The difference is that activated charcoal is burned at higher temperatures, so it breaks down into a fine powder. Which gives it a larger surface area than a chunk of charcoal on the grill. And that’s exactly what you want when you’re trying to remove toxins from your body. How it works has to do with the microscopic structure of the charcoal itself.  Inside each particle are millions of pores that act like a tiny trap. Swallow some, for example, and the outsides will bind to other substances in your gut. Which is helpful if you’ve just overdosed on drugs since it can prevent them from entering your system. And in fact, this is exactly what hospitals will use to treat certain cases of poisoning before resorting to pumping the stomach. But drugs aren’t the only thing charcoal binds to. It can also soak up minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants. So when you drink charcoal-laced lemonade with a healthy meal, you’re absorbing fewer nutrients than you otherwise would. To make matters worse, it can prevent medications, like antidepressants and contraceptive pills, from reaching your system. The key to activated charcoal — whether it’s saving a life or depriving you of nutrition — is timing.  It only works if there’s something for it to absorb in the first place. So, taking charcoal pills for a hangover the next morning isn’t going to help. Because that alcohol is long gone from your stomach by then. But ingesting charcoal for any other reason than treating a severe case of poisoning isn’t a good idea. It’s indigestible. So after you eat it, your body passes it along and eventually out the other end. But along the way, it can have side effects like constipation and nausea. Not to mention, there’s no evidence to support the claims from charcoal enthusiasts that it’ll prevent bloating, boost energy, brighten skin, or whiten teeth. So, if you don’t like the idea of eating black … anything … then don’t! Your body is probably better off, anyway. ------------------------------------------------------ #Charcoal #ActivatedCharcoal #ScienceInsider Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ What Activated Charcoal Actually Does To Your Body | The Human Body
Views: 1494321 Science Insider
What Happens When You Drink Too Much Water
 
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We couldn't live without water. But if we drink too much, it can wreak havoc on our brain and body. Drinking more water than your kidneys can process can throw your blood sodium levels out of balance. That's called water intoxication. And in extreme cases, it can cause brain damage, comas, and even death. ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video: What do you think of when you hear the word poison? Arsenic? Cyanide? How about water? Life couldn’t exist without water. But in the right circumstance... Water can be as dangerous as any poison. Here's what happens when you drink too much water. Your kidneys filter out excess waste and water from your bloodstream. But they can only process 800-1,000 mL of water an hour. And if you somehow manage to drink more than that without throwing up, you can run into trouble. Because you’re drinking faster than your kidneys can process it. So the excess ends up in your cells. Normally, your cells are surrounded by a carefully-balanced solution of sodium and water, which flows in and out through tiny holes in the cellular membrane, so it keeps the sodium concentration both in and out of the cell balanced. But when you drink too much water, the sodium solution gets diluted. It’s not salty enough. So some of that extra water rushes into the cell to restore balance and that causes it to swell up. Doctors call this water intoxication and it’s a big problem. Now, most of your cells can handle the swelling to a degree since soft, flexible tissue like fat and muscle can stretch. But for the cells in your brain, it’s another story, because your skull isn’t stretchy. It’s bone. It’s hard — like a rock. So, as your brain swells, it builds up the pressure in your head. At first, you might experience headaches, confusion, or drowsiness. But as the pressure increases, you risk brain damage, coma, and even death. And it could all be over in less than ten hours. A 64-year-old woman, for example, died the same evening after drinking between 30-40 glasses of water. And a group of US Army trainees suffered vomiting and seizes after downing over 2 liters per hour after a tough day of training. But it’s marathon runners who need to be especially careful. A study found that 1 in 6 marathon runners develop at least mild water intoxication because the race stresses their body, including the kidneys. So, they don’t excrete water as efficiently, which can cause water to back up into the blood more easily. People with certain kidney issues are also vulnerable since they can’t properly process water and the problem isn’t unique to water. For example, the same thing can happen if you down too much beer at once. That’s called potomania. The good news is that there’s an easy way to stay safe. The average healthy adult needs somewhere around 3-4 liters of water a day. And since this can come from food and other drinks too, drink when you’re thirsty, and then stop.
Views: 517838 Science Insider
What Happens When You Sleep In Your Contact Lenses
 
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You really want to take that 3 p.m. nap, but you don't feel like taking out your contacts. After all, what's the worst that could happen? We spoke to an eye surgeon to find out. ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video: Irina Belinsky: Some contact lens brands say that it's okay to sleep in them, but as a general rule, it's really not. Contact lenses are safe, but they're safe if you take care of them appropriately, and part of good contact lens hygiene is not sleeping in your contact lenses. Think of the contact lens as foreign material in your eye. It's sort of like a sponge, and to be comfortable, the contact lens needs to be moist, so, it absorbs moisture from your eye, and it can also trap bacteria, and so, it's very important to take your contact lenses out to clean them periodically. Leaving them in when you sleep can cause an eye infection that can sometimes be really, really bad. A lot of the infections can be mild and go away with antibiotic eye drops, but some infections can be really, really severe, and even if they go away, they can cause scarring of the surface of your eye, which is the cornea, and that scar can cause sort of a permanent change in your vision. Sometimes an infection can be devastating, and it can completely cause the eye to scar to the point that someone might need a corneal transplant or lose vision completely. Really serious blinding kind of infections related to contact lens wear are rare, fortunately. If they were common, then nobody would ever wear contact lenses. So, they are exceedingly rare, and they usually have to do with really, really bad contact lens hygiene. So, good contact lens hygiene has to do with a few things. One, knowing if your contact lens needs to be changed every month or every two weeks and trying to stick to that, even if you have to put a little reminder in your calendar. The more common thing that we see is just contact lens overwear. The cornea gets devoid of oxygen. So, a contact lens does start to break down over time so it doesn't have a smooth surface. It's gonna form micro-breakdown kind of edges, and the contact lens will also dry out. I mean, your eye just doesn't have enough moisture to keep a contact lens in there forever. If you think of the contact lens as a sponge, like the sponge in your kitchen, you have to clean it every so often, and you might even have to replace it every so often, because it just doesn't do the job right anymore. A contact lens can become kind of folded and entrapped in the eye underneath the lid, so, I have seen that where patients come in with chronic red eye, and you look around very carefully and sometimes, and this is also rare, but you can actually extract a contact lens that has probably been there for months. It can happen if you put it in wrong. It can happen if you sleep in it. It can happen if you don't take it out, or if you forget to take it out. Take your contact lenses out. Don't leave them in. Take them out every day.
Views: 739916 Science Insider
Why Stubbing Your Toe Hurts So Much
 
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Stubbing your toe hurts so much because you’re slamming a tiny surface with a force equal to 2-3 times your bodyweight. Then a bundle of nerve endings called nociceptors fire a danger signal to your brain. Although it’s not pleasant, this pain might have helped your ancestors step carefully and avoid injury and infection. MORE HEALTH SCIENCE CONTENT: The Dangerous Chemicals In Your Plastic Packages https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2_6R0fhGtHQ The Dirtiest Places In Your Home https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=04sFxbqf6Sk The Real Reason You Should Never Eat Raw Cookie Dough https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tgXXa7mfyto ------------------------------------------------------ #Toe #Pain #ScienceInsider Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Why Stubbing Your Toe Hurts So Much
Views: 772493 Science Insider
How This Cat Survived A 32-Story Fall
 
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Cats are famous for landing on their feet. But they use a different technique to survive falls from much higher up. By splaying their limbs like a parachuter, cats have been known to walk away from falls as high as 32 stories up with limited injuries. ------------------------------------------------------ #Cats #TerminalVelocity Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ How This Cat Survived A 32-Story Fall Following is a transcript of the video: 32 stories above the streets of New York City, a cat fell from a window and lived. After vets treated the cat's chipped tooth and collapsed lungs, the feline was sent home two days later. Cats fall a lot, and they've gotten really good at it. Drop a cat upside down, for example, and it will almost always land on its feet. That's because cats are extremely flexible. They can twist their bodies mid-air as they fall. But landing feet first isn't always the best strategy. Like if you're falling from 32 stories up. To figure out how cats manage that perfect landing every time, a series of studies looked at over a 100 cats' falls from two to 32 stories up. Comes as no surprise that cats who fell from the second floor had fewer injuries than cats who fell from the sixth floor. But here is the fascinating part. Above the seventh story, the extent of the injuries largely stayed the same, no matter how high the cats fell. So, how is that possible? Well, it all comes down to acrobatics or lack thereof. Cats that fell from two to seven stories up mostly landed feet first. Above that, however, cats used a different technique. Instead of positioning their legs straight down as they fell, they splayed out like a parachuter. And landed belly-first instead. But this method isn't 100% foolproof. Chest trauma, like a collapsed lung, or broken rib is more common with this landing method. But the risk of breaking a leg is much less. So, how do cats somehow subconsciously know how to land? It has to do with a physics phenomenon called terminal velocity. At first, the cat plummets faster and faster under gravity until she's fallen the equivalent of five stories. At that point, she hits constant terminal velocity at 100 kilometers per hour. She's now in free fall where air friction counteracts her acceleration under gravity. At this point, she's no longer accelerating and, more importantly, doesn't feel the pull from gravity. So, here's what researchers think is happening. From two to seven stories up, cats don't have enough time to reach terminal velocity and prep for landing feet first. But once they hit terminal velocity, their instinct changes and they parachute their limbs. All that said, don't throw your cat out of a window. I can't believe I have to say this. Not only is it still very dangerous, it's not very polite. Don't throw your cat out the window just to see all that go down. Just watch this video again. Just hit the little replay button.
Views: 1093123 Science Insider
How Big Is The Universe?
 
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Carl Sagan told us that there are more stars in the universe than there are grains of sand on all of the Earth's beaches. At the same time, there are more H2O molecules in just 10 drops of water than there are stars. Ranging from the unimaginably small to the unimaginably big, the scale of the universe is mind-boggling. Watch to try to wrap your head around it. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 1508830 Science Insider
How Whales Became The Largest Animals Ever
 
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Whales are the largest living animals that have ever existed on this Earth. A blue whale can grow to a whopping 110 feet in length, outweighing even the dinosaurs. But curiously their story begins from rather humble beginnings. Here is the story of how whales became the giants of the sea. ----------------------------------------------------- Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video: Whales are the largest animals to ever exist on this Earth, outweighing even the dinosaurs. These titans roam the oceans in search of food, but that wasn't always the case. Millions of years ago they used to be land dwellers. Here is how whales ended up becoming the biggest of them all.  Following is a transcript of the video. Whales are the biggest animals of all time. Heavier than elephants, wooly mammoths, and even dinosaurs! But they weren’t always the titans of the sea. Let’s rewind the clock around 50 million years. No, you won’t find any whales here. You have to go ashore. Meet Pakicetus. The very first whale. Life on Earth spent millions of years clawing its way out of the oceans. But whales took all that effort and threw it out the window. From 50 to 40 million years ago they traded in their four legs for flippers. In fact, some whales today still have leftover bones of hind legs! Once submerged, their weight under gravity no longer mattered so they could theoretically grow to enormous proportions. And they did. Today, a blue whale is 10 THOUSAND times more massive than the Pakicetus was. But this transformation wasn’t as gradual as you might think. In fact, over the next 37 million years or so whales grew increasingly diverse but their size remained small. And were only 18 feet long. Making them easy prey for predators, like giant sharks. It wasn’t until around 3 million years ago that an ice age tipped the scales in the whales’ favor. Ocean temperatures and currents shifted sparking concentrated swarms of plankton and plankton-seeking krill. It was an all-you-can-eat buffet for the baleen whales, who grew larger as a result. And the larger they became, the farther they could travel in search of more food to grow even more. You can probably see where this is going. 3 million years later, humpbacks, for example, have one of the longest migrations of any mammal on Earth, traveling over 5,000 miles each year. As a result, modern whales are the largest they’ve ever been in history. Take the biggest of the bunch the blue whale. It weighs more than a Boeing 757. Has a belly button the size of a plate. And its network of blood vessels, if you laid them out in a line, could stretch from Pluto to the sun and back over two and a half times! In fact, the largest blue whales are so huge that scientists think they may have hit a physical limit. When they open their wide mouths to feed they engulf enough water to fill a large living room. So it can take as long as 10 seconds to close them again. Scientists estimate once a whale is 110 feet long it can’t close its mouth fast enough before prey escapes. So it’s possible we’re living amongst the largest animal that will ever exist. Lucky for us, they mostly just eat krill. This was made in large part thanks to Nick Pyenson and the information in his new book, “Spying on Whales.”
Views: 1733642 Science Insider
Is Marrying Your Cousin Actually Dangerous?
 
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Do babies born between two cousins actually have a higher chance of having birth defects? Understanding basic genetic principles will help with this question. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Following is a transcript of the video: What did Queen Victoria, Charles Darwin, and Albert Einstein have in common? They all married their first cousins. You’d think Darwin of all people would know better. After all, mating with a close relative passes on bad genes that lead to deadly genetic mutations, right? Today marrying your first cousin is illegal in 24 US states. But for most of Western history, people had to marry whoever lived nearby, which oftentimes meant marrying within the extended family. In fact, between 1650-1850, the average married couple was fourth cousins. So, they had the same great-great-great-grandparents. Genetically speaking that means they shared 0.20% of their DNA. Not much when you compare it to third(0.78%), second(3.13%), and especially first cousins(12.5%). And, the more DNA you share, the greater the chance your offspring will have a genetic disease — like cystic fibrosis or sickle-cell anemia. But here’s the thing: You don’t have to be sick in order to give your child a genetic disease. Take cystic fibrosis. It’s caused by a defect in the CFTR gene. But you need two copies of the defective gene to actually get the disease. So, if you only have one defective copy, you’re unaffected. Instead, you’re what’s called a carrier. Now, if one carrier mates with a non-carrier, there’s no risk of the kids getting sick. But when both parents carry a defective copy of CFTR, then the kids have a 25% chance of inheriting two copies of the gene and having the disease. So to see how dangerous it is to marry your first cousin, we need to calculate the chances that two first cousins both carry a copy of the same genetic disease. Since they share a set of grandparents, we’ll start there. Now it becomes a game of “what ifs”: What if both grandparents are carriers vs. just one? What if one of their children is a carrier vs. none at all? And what if those children marry other carriers, or not? It can get very complicated, very quickly. But scientists have crunched the numbers and it turns out the risk that the cousins have a kid who inherits a genetic disease is 4-7%. For the general population, it’s 3-4%. So, not a big deal right? Here’s the catch: That’s the odds for one genetic disease. But there are thousands that could be hiding in your family tree. Plus, if your kids also marry their first cousins and their kids marry their first cousins it’s a recipe for disaster. Because instead of introducing new, potentially helpful genes into the family gene pool, you’re recycling the old — and possibly dangerous — ones. Take Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. His parents were first cousins twice over! And when he was born, he wasn’t especially healthy. So, as far as marrying your cousin is concerned, you shouldn’t make it a family tradition.
Views: 2043286 Science Insider
How Many Children Can A Human Have In A Lifetime?
 
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How many kids can you have? Moulay Ismail set the record with at least 1171 children. But it's different for men and women. Having children for women takes about a year, if you count the pregnancy and recovery time. For men, there is less time and resource investment, so they can have many more children. How many children men can have depends on the health of their sperm and other factors like how many women they can reproduce with. ------------------------------------------------------ #ScienceInsider Following is a transcript of the video: Imagine having so many children, you could run a factory. That’s what Moulay Ismail’s family looked like. He was a brutal emperor of the Moroccan Alaouite dynasty from 1672 - 1727. And is reported to have had at least 1171 children. But he wasn’t the only one who used his power to have sex with any woman, whether she was interested or not. Other rulers like Augustus the Strong and Genghis Khan had hundreds of children. And while these were some of the more ruthless rulers of their time it raises a more fundamental, scientific question. Women can reproduce for about half of their lifetime and can only give birth about once every year or so. So it makes sense that women can only have a fraction as many children as men. One study estimated a woman can have around 15 pregnancies in a lifetime. And depending on how many babies she births for each pregnancy, she’d probably have around 15-30 children. But the “most prolific mother ever,” according to Guinness World Records, was Mrs. Feodor Vassilyev in 19th century Russia. She’s said to have given birth to 69 children over 27 pregnancies. It’s a lot for a woman. But nothing compared to Moulay Ismail, for example. According to records, he had 4 wives and 500 women in his harem. But, there are factors not even an emperor can control. Like how a man’s sperm becomes less mobile and more abnormal as he grows older. Which ultimately reduces his chances of fathering children later in life. In fact, studies suggest that men over 50 have up to a 38% lower chance of impregnating a woman compared to men under 30. For Ismail, he fathered most of his children relatively young. So, by age 57, he had an estimated 1171 kids. But, Moulay Ismail isn’t the only man in history with tons of progeny. Augustus the Strong, who was king of 18th century Poland, had a long distance relationship with his wife. But that didn’t stop him from fathering a rumored 370 children by mistresses. And Genghis Khan, notorious for conquering large areas of 13th century Asia, is estimated to have had between 1,000-2,000 children. In fact, by tracking types of Y chromosomes, Scientists estimate that up to 16 million men today who live in regions that Khan conquered could be descendants of him or his close male relatives. But did any of these men really reach that maximum humanly possible? Turns out, the records on Ismail only spanned 32 years of his life. By one calculation, he really could have had hundreds more. If you compare that to men in more modern times, the most “prolific” fathers today have up to about 200 children. That’s nowhere near 1100 kids, and probably a good thing. ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ How Many Children Can A Human Have In A Lifetime?
Views: 1312744 Science Insider
Why Bed Bugs Are So Hard To Kill
 
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Humans have struggled against bed bugs for thousands of years. And despite our best efforts and technological advances, infestations are only getting worse. Bed bugs are developing defenses against our best insecticides, such as thicker hides and toxin-fighting enzymes. ------------------------------------------------------ #BedBugs #Insects ##ScienceInsider Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Why Bed Bugs Are So Hard To Kill
Views: 379505 Science Insider
Undersea Cables Power The Internet
 
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Every time you visit a web page or send an email, data is being sent and received through an intricate cable system that stretches around the globe. Since the 1850s, we've been laying cables across oceans to become better connected. Today, there are hundreds of thousands of miles of fiber optic cables constantly transmitting data between nations. Subscribe to BI: Science - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9uD-W5zQHQuAVT2GdcLCvg Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 744762 Science Insider
Why Marijuana Gives You The Munchies
 
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Marijuana can have various effects on your body. But what is it about weed that makes you so hungry? Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 129455 Science Insider
How Smartphones Affect Your Sleep
 
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Staring at screens right before sleep turns out to be a lot worse than previously thought. Dr. Dan Siegel, clinical professor of psychiatry at the UCLA School of Medicine, lays out all of the negative effects bedtime screen viewing can have on the brain and body. ----------------------------------------­---------- Follow BI Video on Twitter: http://bit.ly/1oS68Zs Follow BI Video On Facebook: http://on.fb.me/1bkB8qg Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 1555011 Science Insider
The Science Of Hitting A Major League Fastball
 
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Hitters only have 125 milliseconds to gauge the average Major League fastball – less than the blink of an eye. Which begs the question: how is it humanly possible? Subscribe to BI: Science - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC9uD-W5zQHQuAVT2GdcLCvg ----------------------------------------­---------- Follow BI Video on Twitter: http://bit.ly/1oS68Zs Follow BI Video On Facebook: http://on.fb.me/1bkB8qg Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/ ----------------------------------------­---------- Business Insider is the fastest growing business news site in the US. Our mission: to tell you all you need to know about the big world around you. The BI Video team focuses on technology, strategy and science with an emphasis on unique storytelling and data that appeals to the next generation of leaders – the digital generation.
Views: 114329 Science Insider
The Tallest Lifeforms Of All Time
 
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If you doubled in size, your weight would be eight times greater. That’s the trouble with growing tall. Gravity’s pull is keeping us all down. But there are a few earthly giants that have fought gravity and won.  Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------- Following is a transcript of the video: If you doubled in size, your weight would be 8 times greater. That’s the trouble with growing tall. Gravity’s pull is keeping us all down. But there are a few earthly giants that have fought gravity and won. The key to growing tall is how you use your energy. That’s why the tallest trees outrank any animal on Earth. Because trees spend all their energy on one thing- growing taller than their fellow neighbors. And there are two trees that are the best growers of them all- giant Redwoods and Mountain Ashes. Redwoods are renowned as the tallest life forms on Earth. But some experts think that Mountain Ashes could grow even taller if humans would stop cutting them down. In fact, the tallest Mountain Ash was just 1 meter shorter than the tallest Redwood. Unlike plants, animals spend energy on all sorts of tasks like eating, walking, and staying warm. So, they can't grow as tall. But it doesn't mean they're small, either. If you measured this African Elephant from shoulder to ground it would actually be taller than a Giraffe! But thanks to their long, strong necks, giraffes are the tallest animals alive. And if we look at animals throughout Earth’s history, dinosaurs eclipse them all. These towering Sauropods were the biggest of the bunch. In fact, the top 10 list of tallest animals in history? All dinosaurs. But, what if we looked at the longest lifeforms too? If you balance the longest Saltwater Crocodile on its nose, it would tie the Giraffe! And if we ignore legs, it gets even better! Tip to tail, the Green Anaconda nearly doubles the height of the tallest Giraffe on record. But these land dwellers have nothing on animals of the deep. Supported by water, sea life can practically ignore gravity. Which means they can grow much larger. Take the Blue Whale for example. It’s the most massive animal of all time. The entire cast of Broadway’s “The Lion King” can fit on its tongue! But it should be careful not to get tangled up in the tentacles of a Lion’s Mane Jellyfish, which makes a Giant Squid look small by comparison. Now, the biggest fish alive is the Whale Shark. And if we look into the past, things get even bigger. And where do humans fit into all this? Somewhere near the top, actually. Humans are bigger than 87.6% of mammals on Earth. And the average Dutchman is the tallest of them all. So, there’s no reason to ever feel small again, especially if you’re from the Netherlands. Fun Fact: The longest lifeform of all time isn’t a plant or animal at all. It’s a Honey Fungus and the biggest one goes on for 3.8 kilometers underneath a forest in Oregon.
Views: 3067538 Science Insider
Why Cities Can’t Get Rid Of Rats
 
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Living in a city does not make you any less susceptible to seeing a rat. We try really hard to get rid of these pesky pests, but they seem to always slink around some corner of an alley you are walking down. Here is the answer to why rats are so hard to get rid of from your city.  Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------- Following is a transcript of the video: Wormtail. Professor Ratigan. The R.O.U.S. Pop culture has given rats a bad rep. And it’s understandable why. Take northeastern India’s rat flood. Twice a century, rats swarm when bamboo forests drop about 80 tons of seeds. After they devour the seeds, they devastate local agriculture. In the 1960s, the resulting famine was so bad, it lead to a major political uprising. It’s no wonder that the technical term for a group of rats is a “mischief”! And they’re not just a problem for farmers. These crafty rodents are the ultimate urbanites. Meet your average city rats: Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus. These rats live pretty much wherever we do. Especially in cities. Take New York City, for example. We don’t know exactly how many rats call the Big Apple home. But a 2014 study gave a ballpark estimate of 2 million rats. That means for heavily-infested areas you could have several rats per person! And in some ways, rats are better suited for living in cities than people. They can climb brick walls, “tightrope walk” over telephone cables, and their incisors grow 14 inches a year. Which lets them gnaw into anything — including everywhere you don’t want them. But their most powerful ability? Rats are clever. Too clever. Scientists have shown that rats can learn to use tools. And when offered the choice between a chocolate and freeing a trapped friend. Rats chose to free their friend over chocolate!  Translate those smarts to the real world and rats easily avoid traps. Trying to poison them won’t help much either. Rats are extremely patient when it comes to new foods. They’ll taste just a tiny portion at first, wait to see if that food makes them sick and only then, consume the rest if it’s safe. This is called “delayed learning” and it’s why rats are notoriously difficult to poison. Plus, they can develop resistance to many poisons over time so even outwitting them might not work in the long run. Another major issue is that rats reproduce quickly. A single doe usually has 8-12 pups every 8 weeks! And those babies can have pups of their own after only 5 weeks!  So as long as they have access to food, rat populations will rebound from just about any attack. The only attack they can’t handle is improved sanitation.  And cities are using that to their advantage. In 2017, for example, New York City launched a $32 million war plan against its rats. Eliminate 70% of the rats in its 10 most-infested neighborhoods.  The plan is simple. Cut off their food source. You see, NYC produces around 33 million tons of trash a year — more than any other city on Earth! The trash piles aren’t getting any smaller but the city can at least make it harder for rats to reach by replacing traditional trash compactors with a mailbox style opening. Will NYC succeed by the end of 2018, as proposed? Judging from the thousands of years where rats came out on top it sounds a tad optimistic. While wild rats are problematic pests, pet fancy rats are another story. They don’t spread disease and are social, smart, and easily trainable. And get this, one amazing study found that rats giggle when you tickle them!
Views: 807204 Science Insider
What Happens When You Stare At The Sun For Too Long
 
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We all know the harmful effects of the sun touching our skin, so we ready ourselves with sunscreen to block the rays. But what about our eyes? What would happen if we happened to stare directly at the sun?  Tech Insider tells you all you need to know about tech: gadgets, how-to's, gaming, science, digital culture, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/sai TI on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/techinsider TI on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/tech_insider/ TI on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------- Following is the transcript of the video: Whether it’s to map the stars, spy on other planets, or study the sun, humans have been looking to the skies for millennia. But some objects are safer to observe than others.  For example, astronomer Mark Thompson put a pig’s eye behind a regular telescope aimed at the sun and it burned a hole straight through the lens in about 20 seconds. Now, looking at the sun through a telescope is an especially terrible idea but just how bad is it to glance up with the naked eye? On a clear day, the sun shines up to 5,000 times brighter than an average light bulb. When something that bright strikes your eye, a few things can happen. If it’s only for a moment, the worst you’ll experience is a blurry splotch on your vision called an after image.  Normally, light reaches the retina at the back of your eye, where it triggers photoreceptors that relay the information to your brain. This is how you are able to see anything. But bombard them with too much light at once, and you can actually damage the cells and proteins that help them process light. Since your retina has no pain receptors, the damage won’t hurt, but it will leave that blurry splotch on your vision. Usually, it clears up in a few minutes that is, unless you keep staring. Now, you’re doing more than just overloading your retina. For starters, you’re giving your eyes an abnormally high dose of UV radiation the same stuff that causes sunburns. Like your skin, the cornea at the front of your eye can also burn. And that will hurt. The cornea protects the rest of your eye and is therefore covered in pain receptors that alert you whenever a pesky eyelash is on the loose.  But UV radiation isn’t the only issue. Too much visible light can penetrate your eye and damage the retinal tissue, which causes a condition called solar retinitis. This means parts of your retina can no longer process light normally, so you can end up with entire chunks of your vision blurred out. Depending on the extent of the damage, recovery can take weeks, months, and in severe cases over a year. But in rare cases, the damage is so extreme it never heals, leading to a rare condition called solar retinopathy. This usually only shows up in reckless eclipse gazers. Turns out, during a solar eclipse, most of the sun’s light is blocked, which actually can trick your brain into thinking it’s safe to stare. Normally, our bodies have a built-in defense mechanism against staring at the sun. Specifically, when we squint we look up, which minimizes the amount of light coming in and protects our cornea and retina. But during a solar eclipse, the sun doesn’t appear bright enough to trigger our defense mechanisms so we can end up staring for longer than is safe. Suffice it to say, there’s nothing good about staring at the sun. So do your eyes a favor and avoid looking at it. After all, there are around 6,000 stars in the night sky you can safely observe for as long as you wish.
Views: 505022 Science Insider
Why Some Men Can't Grow Beards
 
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We asked a dermatologist to explain the scientific reasons that some men aren't able to grow thick, dense facial hair. Dr. Jennifer Chwalek is a Board Certified dermatologist at Union Square Laser Dermatology in New York. Chwalek explained that an inability to grow thick facial hair is not directly related to low levels of testosterone. Facial hair growth is largely determined by genetics, which can determine the number of hair follicles a person has, as well as how the follicles react to a byproduct of testosterone known as dihydrotestosterone. ------------------------------------------------------ #Beard #FacialHair #ScienceInsider Following is a transcript of the video: Narrator: Look at that beard. The density. The thickness. It's what a beard is supposed to be! Not this. This is my beard, if you even want to call it a beard. This footage was taken after I let it grow for two weeks. Two weeks! It's thin, patchy, and in some spots there's no hair at all. Sad. But let's look at this one again. This is Kevin. We're around the same age, both Caucasian males of Irish descent. You could say we have a lot in common, except in the facial hair department. So, I asked a dermatologist about why he's able to grow a beard and I'm not. Dr. Jennifer Chwalek: It's based on genetics as well as hormones. Some men, you know, have more hair follicles, so they can grow denser, coarser beards than others. Testosterone gets converted in the hair follicle to a more potent form called dihydrotestosterone. Some hair follicles have receptors on them that are very sensitive to this higher form of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and that will stimulate hair growth. Graham Flanagan: How would you characterize my facial hair? Dr. Chwalek: I'd say it's like, sparse, and you have light-colored hair, so it doesn't show up quite as much. Flanagan: I can't really grow a great beard. It's been a problem. I want one. I wanna look like my colleague, Kevin. I mean, look at that beard. It is just glorious. Why can't I grow a beard like Kevin? Dr. Chwalek: Well, Kevin has some good hair genes, so because of that, the hair follicles on his face are more sensitive to the effects of a form of testosterone called dihydrotestosterone which can help to stimulate thicker, coarser, longer hair growth in some areas of the body like the beard area. Narrator: Beards and facial hair have long been associated with masculinity and virility. I began to wonder if my inability to grow thick facial hair like Kevin makes me less of a man. Flanagan: Does the fact that I can't grow a beard, does it make mean that I have low testosterone? Dr. Chwalek: No. Men who can't grow a beard or have patchy beards usually have normal testosterone levels. It isn't a reflection of having low testosterone or being deficient in testosterone. Flanagan: So, you can still be virile — Dr. Chwalek: Right. Flanagan: And grow a crappy beard like this? Dr. Chwalek: Yes. Flanagan: Okay, good. Narrator: And in fact, there are some ways to increase the chances of growing facial hair, but shaving more often isn't one of them. Dr. Chwalek: So, the idea that shaving can impact hair growth is actually a myth. When you're shaving, you're just cutting the hair off at the surface of the skin, and what's controlling the hair growth is really occurring deeper in the skin. So, it shouldn't have any impact on how quickly the hair grows, or how dense the hair grows. People have tried topical Rogaine or Minoxidil. These things may stimulate a little hair growth, but assuming it's due to genetics, then you're kind of stuck with what you have. Flanagan: It's all about the sensitivity of the hair follicles and how they interact with this — Dr. Chwalek: Dihydrotestosterone or androgens in the blood. Flanagan: So, you're saying that, that his hair follicles are "sensitive." Dr. Chwalek: Yes. Flanagan: See, mine aren't. Dr. Chwalek: Right. Flanagan: They aren't sensitive. They're like rocks. They have no sensitivity at all. Okay, so I win that! Dr. Chwalek: Right. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Why Some Men Can't Grow Beards
Views: 1840889 Science Insider
Is There A Better Planet Out There For Us?
 
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The discovery of several Earth-like planets outside the solar system has opened the possibilities of expanding our horizons and establish out first interstellar colonies. What would life be like on these 'super-Earths'? And if we ever got there... would we be able to leave? Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------- Following is the transcript of the video: Astronomers have found dozens of potentially habitable planets outside of our solar system. That’s dozens of chances to discover the first alien life! Or plenty of places we could park our first interstellar colonies! But with so many options, how do we know which is best? You might think the most Earth-like planets should be top of our list. After all, we've got water, land, an atmosphere, and trillions of life forms lapping it all up. But according to a small group of researchers, there are bigger and better planets out there. They’re called super-Earths. Super-Earths may be some of the most common planets in our galaxy. Since 2009, the Kepler Space Telescope has discovered about 4,000 exoplanets. 30% of them are super-earths. And a few percent of those super-earths orbit within their host star’s habitable zone: That’s a Goldilocks zone where the planet’s surface is just the right temperature for liquid water. Not too cold or too hot. Now, there’s a chance that some of these super-Earth’s aren’t rocky worlds like Earth. The larger ones could be made of mostly hydrogen and helium gas like Jupiter and Saturn which would not be hospitable for life. But the reality is, astronomers are still gathering details as more data comes in. So, in the meantime, we’ll explore what life on a rocky, habitable super-Earth might be like. Liquid water is just the start. These planets can be almost double Earth’s radius and up to 10 times more massive. And all that extra mass is what researchers think could really make super-Earth’s the perfect home. Because more massive planets have a stronger gravitational pull. Super-Earth Kepler 20b, for example, is nearly double the size of Earth and is 10 times more massive. Making its surface gravity almost 3 times stronger. That stronger gravity means the planet can hold on to more air molecules forming a thicker atmosphere. Which is great for protection against harmful space radiation. It also means mountains and hills would erode faster leaving a relatively flatter surface compared to Earth. Which might sound boring but scientists think this could actually spawn dozens of shallow islands across the planet. Which, in turn, could be the perfect place for life to form and evolve. “Just as biodiversity in Earth’s oceans is richest in shallow waters near coastlines, such an ‘archipelago world’ might be enormously advantageous to life.” There’s just one problem leaving this tropical paradise would be extremely difficult. The escape velocity on Kepler 20b is more than double compared to Earth’s. Which means either rockets would need more fuel to reach their destinations. For example, a mission similar to the Apollo moon landings would require twice the amount of fuel or, rockets could only carry a fraction of the payload. For instance, SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy can launch 50,000 kilograms of payload into Earth’s orbit whereas it could only launch 40 kilograms into orbit around a super-Earth like Kepler 20b. That’s about the weight of a German Shepherd. Suffice it to say, leaving a super-Earth would be a far greater challenge. But if it looked like this, would you really want to say goodbye? We’ll never know for sure until we visit one. What do you want to know about space? Leave your queries in the comments below. And thanks for watching.
Views: 601972 Science Insider
Why Hurricanes Hardly Ever Hit Europe
 
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Hurricane season can be a frightening time for people on and near the east coast of the United States. But in Europe, it's a different story. Europe rarely ever sees full-on hurricanes reach its shores. But that may not always be the case. ------------------------------------------------------ #Hurricanes #Europe Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider Why Hurricanes Hardly Ever Hit Europe ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video: You don't have to live far inland to avoid hurricanes. Just move to Europe. It rarely sees full-on hurricanes. But that may soon change. Following is a transcript of the video. Europe hasn't had a hurricane reach its shore in over 50 years. Now don't get the wrong idea. Hurricane season still brings a hefty dose of wind and rain. But Europe has something that North America doesn't, when it comes to protection against hurricanes. Location. Hurricanes usually form off the coast of West Africa, where warm water near the Equator and high humidity create columns of rapidly rising rotating air. It's the perfect recipe for a storm. Now the more warm, moist air that the system picks up, the stronger it becomes. That's why a tropical storms can quickly grow into a full on hurricane as it marches across the Atlantic. Now normally hurricanes are propelled on a westward track by the trade winds, caused by the Earth's rotation. That's why Europe as well as the West Coast of the US, rarely experience full on hurricanes. But that's not the whole story. After all, since the year 2000, remnants of around 30 hurricanes have reached Europe. For comparison, Florida has seen 79 real hurricanes over the same time frame. By the time these remnants make landfall, they've went from a hurricane force, to a tropical storm or weaker. And that's where Europe's location comes into play. In order for a hurricane to head towards Europe, something crucial has to happen. It has to travel really far North by about 200 miles. Once a storm system reaches 30 degrees north, it encounters the subtropical jet stream. Which moves in the opposite direction of the trade winds. And therefore, blows the storm East But because the storm is now farther North, the waters underneath are colder by up to about five to 10 degrees Celsius. Which means less energy available to feed the storm. And as a result, it starts to die down by the time it's headed for Europe. Even though it's no longer a hurricane, it still packs a punch when it hits shore. In fact, most of these hurricane remnants will combine with other nearby cyclones and weather fronts, that create high winds and rain that mainly hit Ireland and Great Britain. But have been known to reach as far as Greece or even farther in Northern Russia. Typical damages include power outages, flooding, and occasionally casualties. Most recently the remnants of Hurricane Ophelia made landfall in Ireland and Scotland in 2017. About 50,000 households in Northern Ireland lost power. Three deaths were reported and downed trees closed many of the public roads and highways. This was the worst storm that Ireland had seen in 50 years. And it may be a sign of what's to come. As global surface temperatures rise, it will also increase the sea surface temperatures in the Northern Atlantic. Which researchers estimate could contribute to an increase in the number of hurricane force storms that reach Europe. Some experts predict that by the end of the 21st century, Europe could experience, on average, 13 powerful storms each year during hurricane season. Compared to the two per year it sees now.
Views: 1176252 Science Insider
3 Surprising Ways Humans Are Still Evolving
 
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Evolution gave humanity powerful brains, flat feet, and opposable thumbs. But it's not through with us yet. Humans are still evolving new traits that help us survive and thrive in a changing world. ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video: On the outside, it may seem like we haven’t changed much from our early ancestors. But take a closer look and you’ll discover that humans are still evolving in some fascinating new ways. HOLDING YOUR BREATH The average person can hold their breath for 30 seconds. But Bajau people in Southeast Asia can hold it up to 12 minutes! Which comes in handy when they freedive over 230 feet for food. Part of the reason is simply training and experience, since they spend over half their work day underwater But it turns out the Bajau also have a genetic mutation that makes their spleens 50% larger than average. Our spleens are what filter and store oxygen-rich red blood cells. So, when the Bajau dive underwater their larger spleens contract, which boosts oxygen levels in the blood by up to 10%, allowing them more time to collect food. It’s a handy adaptation that probably came from living on houseboats for the last 1,000 years. DRINKING MILK About 35% of the world’s population has the equivalent of a genetic superpower: They can digest milk as adults. Not impressed? Then consider this: humans are the ONLY mammals on the planet with this ability. Thanks to a genetic mutation that popped up in Europe around 5 to 10 thousand years ago. Those with the mutation produce lactase throughout their lives. That’s the enzyme that breaks down milk sugars for easy digestion. All other mammals, and humans for most of history, stop producing it after childhood. But once those lucky few Europeans could drink milk as adults, that suddenly meant extra nutrition and ultimately healthier, longer lives so that they could pass their superpower on to future generations. Today, roughly 95% of Northern Europeans have the mutation. FENDING OFF DISEASE The human body has an estimated 20 to 30 thousand genes. And while some mutations can change our spleens and diet others can protect us against deadly conditions, like AIDS. Nearly 50% of women in parts of South Africa have HIV. But researchers found that some show a stronger resistance to the virus taking longer to develop AIDS, or sometimes never getting it at all. Turns out, these women also share a mutation in a gene called HLA-B27, that the others lack. Does this mean we're going to evolve our way to HIV immunity? It’s too early to say. But one thing’s clear: Evolution’s not done with us yet.
Views: 276961 Science Insider
Why Babies Can't Drink Water
 
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While drinking ample amount of water is generally good health practice for adults, it can be deadly for newborn babies. It turns out, just a few ounces of water can be too much for an infant to handle, resulting in water intoxication that can even be fatal. ------------------------------------------------------ #WhyBabiesCantDrinkWater Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video: While adults need a constant reminder to drink more and stay hydrated, it's a different story for newborn babies. Their bodies aren't developed enough to consume even a few ounces of water, which in extreme cases could be fatal. Following is a transcript of the video. There is a time in every person’s life when drinking water is deadly. Even as much as a few ounces is enough to kill. The average, healthy adult is made up of 55-60% water. The average baby, on the other hand, is roughly 75% water. And that difference is why babies shouldn’t drink water before they’re at least 6 months old. Not from the tap, or a well, or a spring. Plain water is just plain off limits. You see, everyone’s kidneys have a limit to how much water they can handle. Break that limit, and the excess water will back up into your bloodstream, where it dilutes the salt, or sodium, in your blood. Once your blood dips below 0.4 ounces of sodium per gallon, you’re at risk of a condition called Hyponatremia. It happens when your cells try to return sodium levels to normal by absorbing the extra water and swell up like a water balloon in the process, causing complications like confusion, vomiting, and muscle spasms. Hyponatremia is common in marathon runners who drink too much, too fast during a race without also providing enough sodium to balance out their blood. And if you keep drinking, that excess water will eventually reach the cells in your brain. By this point, you have a dangerous case of water intoxication, which affects roughly 200,000 Americans each year. It occurs when your brain cells swell, which builds up pressure inside your skull. That can lead to seizures, brain damage, and — in severe cases — death. But don’t worry, dying from water intoxication is extremely hard for a fully-grown human. An adult would have to drink 2.5-5 gallons every few hours to reach that point. But for newborns, it’s a different story. Their kidneys are about half the size of an adult’s. So, they can’t hold much water to begin with, and it takes just a few ounces to cause problems. On top of that, their kidneys aren’t developed enough, yet, to properly filter water. So, any water that enters their body ends up in the circulatory system, where it dilutes their blood, and increases their water content by 7 to 8%. But it’s not just drinking straight H2O that poses a threat. In fact, most cases of water intoxication in infants don’t even involve a glass of water. A common mistake is when people dilute baby formula TOO MUCH, by accident, or when parents dunk their infants up and down in a swimming pool, and in the process, the infant gulps in too much water. It’s important that if your baby is showing signs of water intoxication that you take them to the hospital immediately, where a doctor will likely provide some form of fluids, like intravenous saline solution, to bring the infant's sodium levels up to normal.
Views: 2091802 Science Insider
How Long Drugs Actually Stay In Your System
 
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Drugs like marijuana, cocaine, and MDMA can remain in your system for days, weeks, and even months. But they vary drastically in how long they can be detected in your urine, blood, and hair. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 544973 Science Insider
What If Earth Started Spinning Backwards?
 
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If Earth stopped rotating, it would be a disaster. But what if Earth started rotating backwards? It might not be as catastrophic as you think. Deserts would turn into forests. And hurricanes would be less prevalent. But that’s just the beginning. ------------------------------------------------------ #Earth #Deserts Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ What If Earth Started Spinning Backwards Following is a transcript of the video: If Earth stopped rotating, it would be a disaster. But what if Earth started rotating backwards? It might not be as catastrophic as you think. Deserts would turn into forests. And hurricanes would be less prevalent. But that’s just the beginning. The following is a transcript of the video.  Stand on the equator and you’ll be moving at 1,670 kilometers per hour — faster than the speed of sound! That’s how quickly Earth rotates on its axis, from West to East. And that rotation is largely responsible for the distribution of every desert, forest, and swamp on the planet. So, let’s do a little experiment. Let’s say we reverse Earth’s rotation. What then? Well, you’ll change a lot more than just the sunsets. This may seem like a ridiculous scenario at first. But, scientists have actually run simulations for a backwards-spinning Earth, because it happens to be a great way to test how well we can model our planet. So, let’s pretend we have a big red button … and … presto! Now, as Earth slows down to reverse direction, everything would go flying to the east. So, the whole process will leave a huge mess. But let’s take a look at the equator, once Earth has gotten back up to speed. These are the Trade Winds, which normally blow westward due to Earth’s rotation. So, on backwards Earth, they reverse. And that’s where things get interesting. At first, changes would be relatively small. Hurricanes, for example, would no longer travel from east to west across the Atlantic. And westbound flights would suddenly be much shorter compared to eastbound. Not so bad, right? Let’s fast forward a few thousand years into the future. Changes in overall rain patterns would turn Africa’s Sahara Desert from this, to something more like this. In fact, one simulation estimated that the deserts of the world would shrink from 42 million square kilometers to 31 million. Providing new plant life, which would absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Potentially offsetting the extreme warming effects from climate change. Wow, maybe we really should reverse Earth’s rotation! But hold on. If the Trade Winds reverse direction, it means that other wind patterns change too. Including the Prevailing Westerlies that normally blow east across the northern Atlantic. And bring warm winds from the ocean to Northwest Europe, keeping winters mild. But on backwards Earth, the westerlies reverse. And instead, Europe is bombarded with cold winds from Russia. As a result, scientists estimate winter temperatures would drop by up to 10 degrees Celsius! In fact, most of the North Atlantic would grow colder. Simulations show that the Gulf Stream — which normally transports warm tropic waters to the north — would reverse and shrink. In North America, the landscape would change drastically. For example, the iconic deserts of the American southwest would disappear and become the deserts of the southeast, instead. And while you’re packing up to move to the beautiful new green pastures of Arizona, take a look on the horizon and enjoy that peculiar sunset to the east.
Views: 546038 Science Insider
What's Inside An Elephant Trunk
 
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Elephant trunks are the most impressive noses in the animal kingdom. Made almost entirely of muscle, elephant trunks can lift hundreds of pounds, suck up gallons of water, and sniff out landmines. But, what's on the inside of an elephant trunk? MORE ANIMAL SCIENCE CONTENT: What Happens To Wild Animals During A Wildfire https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZ28rktKyvo The Most Impressive Dads In The Animal Kingdom https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mN1J-Jeh_AA How This Cat Survived A 32-Story Fall https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0m5CtIknAg4 ------------------------------------------------------ #Elephant #Wildlife #ScienceInsider Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ What's Inside An Elephant Trunk
Views: 347778 Science Insider
Why You Shouldn't Pop Your Pimples
 
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Acne is the most common skin disease, according to the National Institute of Health. Even if it may ease the pain or the unsightly pus, dermatologist Michelle Rodrigues explains in an article on The Conversation that we should not pop them. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsi... Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_ins... Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 2747639 Science Insider
The Deadliest Venomous Animals In The World
 
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Some of the world’s deadliest animals have venom that's thousands of times more toxic than cyanide and can kill a human in minutes. Brown snakes, funnel web spiders, and blue-ringed octopuses are among the animals that you do not want to mess with. We spoke with Steve Trim at Venomtech (www.venomtech.co.uk) who helped us rank some of the deadliest bites to humans on Earth. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Following is a transcript of the video: You’ve been bitten! And uh oh, it’s venomous! How long have you got? Well, that depends on a few factors including the potency, dose delivered and speed of distribution. Turns out, not all Venoms act the same way. Here are the animals with the fastest-acting venom on Earth. First up: spiders. There are around 40,000 species of spider and most are venomous. But, thankfully, only a handful pose a threat to humans. Including the male Sydney funnel-web spider. Its venom is 60 times as potent as cyanide and can kill a human in 1-2 hours. The venom attacks the nervous system kicking it into overdrive until — ultimately — it shuts down! Of course, spiders aren’t the only venomous animals in Australia. It’s home to 20 of the world’s 25 deadliest snakes. Including the Eastern brown snake, which is responsible for the most snakebite deaths in the country. Its venom is 8,000 times stronger than cyanide and can kill a human in about one hour. Its venom also attacks the central nervous system but this time it slows everything down. And to top it off, the venom has a coagulant that causes the blood in your veins and arteries to clot. Between the two, it’s not a good way to go. Now, at this point, you might consider switching your Australian safari to a scuba dive just to be on the safe side. But, turns out venomous animals live in Australian waters too. Like the blue-ringed octopus. Its venom is 1,000 times more toxic than cyanide and it’ll bring down a human in just 20-40 minutes. Bacteria in its saliva make an extremely potent neurotoxin which paralyzes your muscles. And once that paralysis hits your diaphragm and rib muscles, you only have a few minutes before you suffocate to death. No, the fastest-acting venom on Earth belongs to the Australian Box Jellyfish or sea wasp. It’s not the most potent venom out there. But encounter one of these guys and you’ll be dead in 15 minutes. That’s all because of these things They’re COVERED with tiny, venom-loaded darts, called nematocysts. Which shoot heart-stopping toxins into the body wherever they make contact. All of this sounds pretty scary, but remember you’re less likely to die by venomous snails than by car crashes, an infection, or disease. And it’s not like these animals are after you anyways. They’d just as well prefer that you stick to your own habitat. But still be smart, be respectful, be safe.
Views: 345384 Science Insider
Does Your Dog Really Love You?
 
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Does you dog really love you? According to Marc Bekoff, cognitive ethologist and author, dogs most likely think and feel similarly to humans. However, not all dogs will automatically show you their love and affection. ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video: Your dog is the best. You go on long walks together, cuddle up on the couch, and enjoy sloppy kisses. You really love that pup. But … is there any way to know if your dog loves you back? Well, first let’s address the bigger question: does your dog love anything? Can your dog love? Marc Bekoff: “I think we can, in many ways, apply the same criteria to dogs as we do to human animals.” Marc Bekoff spent a lifetime understanding animal minds. From coyotes and wolves to domestic dogs like yours, and he says that dogs probably think and feel similar to humans. Marc Bekoff: “A lot of new research on neuroimaging using functional magnetic resonance imaging- fMRI’s, is showing that the same parts of dog brains and human brains light up when for example, they’re feeling jealous.” So the difference between how your dog feels joy, and other emotions, and how you experience them, might be like the difference between you and another human. So dogs can likely experience what we’d think of as loving relationships and studies show that dogs are pretty good at building relationships with us, too. One study found that dog brains are highly adapted to recognizing human faces and interpreting our social cues. So, maybe that’s how your dog always knows when you had a bad day. But are those puppy dog eyes just for you or is your dog only pretending to love you for food? Marc Bekoff: “That, I think, is really ridiculous. Are there dogs who use people for certain things? I’m sure there are, just like there are some people who use people for certain things. But i don’t think that would characterize the overall nature of dog-human relationships.” So yes, your dog can love you! But just because they can doesn’t automatically mean they do. Marc Bekoff: “To say that they’re unconditional lovers is just ridiculous. Each dog is a unique individual and it’s not one-size-fits-all. Even the most brutally abused dogs I’ve met who took months to get them to even make eye contact with me have the capacity to love. But there’s just very good reasons why they don’t. In order for you to feel the love, you have to earn that trust.” And like everything worth having in life, that trust will take time and work. But it can be done. Marc Bekoff: “It’s sometimes just telling them they’re a good dog when they’ve done nothing. I did a study about the frequency with which people say no, stop that, versus “good dog.” And, don’t worry, you’ll know once you’ve gotten to that special point in your relationship. Marc Bekoff: “Do they follow you around, do they just hang out with you, not only when you’re feeding them or walking them. Do they seek you out? When you’re not there, is it clear that they miss you? Oh yeah, that’s one happy dog. So can your dog love you? Absolutely. Does your dog love you? Well, that’s on you.
Views: 297443 Science Insider
5 Animals You Wouldn’t Suspect Are Actually Fearsome Predators
 
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When asked to name the greatest hunters one would automatically respond with the standard tiger or lion or the crocodile. But in nature, there are unexpected predators smaller in size that will match up to even the biggest of the predators with their ferociousness and fearlessness. Here is why Mr big the unassuming shrew is one of the most fearless predators in Zootopia. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------------- Following is a transcript of the video. Foxes cower at his name. Polar bears follow his every order. The name Mr. Big strikes fear into the heart of many a predator in Zootopia. As well it should, Mr. Big, after all, is an arctic shrew. And shrews are fearsome predators. Turns out some of the most formidable hunters in nature, come in surprising packages. Quick, think of a fearsome predator. What comes to mind? Crocodiles? Cobras? Tigers? You might not think to flee at the sight of this Northern short-tailed shrew. And that would be a mistake. These tiny guys can take down prey over twice their size with a single bite. Their secret? Venomous spit. In fact, these shrews are one of the only mammals on Earth with a toxic bite. But even they can’t contend with our next hunter, the mongoose. They mostly dine on insects, small reptiles, birds, and rodents. But some species also go after deadlier prey. Like cobras, mambas, and other venomous snakes. And sure, it takes guts to battle a full-hooded cobra but there’s more to this bravery than meets the eye. These mongooses are resistant to neurotoxins in snake venom. Normally, the toxins bind to muscle cell receptors which blocks signals from the brain, causing paralysis. But certain mongooses have specially shaped receptors that fend off the toxins. Next up, the giant otter. On average, they’re about as long as a human man is tall. And usually, prefer prey like catfish and piranhas. But on rare occasions, they’ve been known to go after anacondas and croc-like caimans at least twice their length. And they don’t even have any secret weapons, like toxic saliva, for help! Just their fellow otters since they sometimes hunt in groups. But believe it or not, there’s another type of weasel who goes after even bigger quarry. The Wolverine. Wolverines are about the size of a border collie. And have been known to hunt caribou! They like to ambush their prey and when that doesn’t work, they have the gall to try and steal prey from larger predators like wolves and bears. Last but certainly not least is perhaps the most unsuspecting predator of them all. Meet the Epomis beetle. Right after birth, these hungry larvae are already on the hunt. Frogs, toads, and salamanders are a tasty meal. But the newborns can’t just chase these large meals down. Instead, they lure their prey by tricking it into attacking them. Then, they swing around, sink their hooked jaws into the flesh, and latch on. Mmm, lunch time! Whether you’re dealing with a beetle or a weasel, the lesson’s clear, size isn’t everything. Are there any unsuspecting predators we missed? Let us know in the comments. And thanks for watching.
Views: 250895 Science Insider
What Happens When You Procrastinate Too Much
 
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There's a reason why people are such bad procrastinators. It's easy: Procrastinating feels great. But it's not so great for your brain since it pits two of your brain's heavy hitters, your limbic system, and your prefrontal cortex into a literal head-to-head match. ------------------------------------------------------ #Procrastination #Psychology #ScienceInsider Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ What Happens When You Procrastinate Too Much Following is a transcript of the video: Most of us have procrastinated at some point in our lives. But about one in every five of us are compulsive about it. Putting off tasks and chores nearly every chance they get. They’re called chronic procrastinators. And it turns out, this behavior does a lot more damage than you might think. We get it, doing work is hard. But when you choose to watch tv over doing laundry or washing the dishes you’ve just launched an all-out battle in your brain. On one side is your prefrontal cortex. That’s the part of your brain that sets long-term goals and regulates self-control. It’s telling you that those dishes aren’t going to clean themselves. On the opposing side is your limbic system. It deals with pleasure, arousal, and reward. And it’s telling you that washing dishes is no fun, and you’ll have a better time doing something else. So, procrastination essentially puts your brain in its happy place. It feels good. That’s why you do it. But just because it feels good doesn’t necessarily mean it’s good for you. For example, several studies have found that undergraduate college students who procrastinated had a lower GPA in the latter half of the semester compared to non-procrastinators. They were also more likely to get sick, based on their healthcare visits. Moreover, other studies have found that procrastinators report higher levels of guilt and anxiety when they choose to procrastinate in the first place. And if you keep it up, researchers have found that chronic procrastination is linked to: low self-confidence, Low energy, And depression. Overall, your quality of life will probably be worse, than if you just listened to your prefrontal cortex. And you may think that you just have a different workflow or that you perform better under pressure. But, sorry to say, there are no studies to support any benefits of chronic procrastination. Bottom line: it’s unhealthy. But not all hope is lost. In fact, researchers have conducted dozens of scientific studies in search for ways to help procrastinators. What they’ve found time and again is that how you think about tasks can make a huge difference in how likely you are to procrastinate on them. Tasks like saving for retirement, for example, can be abstract: There’s no immediate deadline, so you can always start tomorrow. And it’s this mentality that can lead you to procrastinate. Instead, make your tasks more concrete in your mind. For example, a study in 2011 discovered that people given an illustration of how they might look at retirement age were more likely to say they would save money for retirement, than people without an illustration. The image was something tangible. And, therefore, painted a more concrete picture of their inevitable future. Whatever the task, do your health a favor and do the work. You might just enjoy that tv show even more once you get to it.
Views: 81593 Science Insider
What's At The Bottom Of The Great Blue Hole?
 
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The Great Blue Hole is a massive underwater sinkhole off the coast of Belize. In the winter of 2018, a submarine crew from Aquatica Submarines ventured to the bottom of the hole and made some unexpected discoveries. ------------------------------------------------------ Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider ------------------------------------------------------ What's At The Bottom Of The Great Blue Hole?
Views: 317345 Science Insider
What Really Happens During A Brain Freeze
 
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Drinking cold beverages is a great way to fight off the summer heat, but if you drink too quickly, it could lead to a brain freeze. But is your brain actually getting cold? Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider -------------------------------------------------- Following is a transcript of the video: Ugh, brain freeze! It’s awful. That sharp searing pain in your forehead! But you know what’s even worse? Not everyone gets it! That’s right, some people can suck down as many milkshakes as they want and never feel a thing. Life is so unfair. And you know what else? These lucky people are ruining it for scientists, too. Brain freeze is one of those scientific mysteries that’s been around since the 1800s. Just throw it in there with UFOs and crop circles. We may never know the real reason behind them! Ok, maybe that’s a bit of an exaggeration. But here’s the thing: The leading theories for what causes a brain freeze have to do with a physical response that everyone should feel. The way scientists think it works is this: Brain freeze happens when something cold hits the roof of your mouth, where it triggers your trigeminal nerve. It’s the nerve in charge of sensations you feel around the front of your head. That’s why, when you freeze it to subzero temperatures, the pain is around the temples and forehead. In fact, different nerves cause pain in different parts of your head. A toothache, for example, can irritate the mandibular nerve, causing pain near the central skull. But when it comes to a brain freeze the source of the pain is different from most other headaches. Turns out, it’s more similar to why your feet and hands sting when they get too cold. Your body floods that area with blood to try and return it to body temperature and in the process, your blood vessels expand, which causes that throbbing pain. Similarly, during a brain freeze, blood vessels in your brain widen, sending a rush of blood to the roof of your mouth and, in the process, cause pain. Now, the trigeminal nerve is a natural part of the body. So, if it’s the real cause of brain freeze, then that means everyone should get it. So why do scientists estimate that only 37% Americans actually feel it? And for that matter, 41% of children in Taiwan and only 15% of the adults in Denmark, according to another study? Researchers can only speculate: Maybe the trigeminal nerve is less sensitive in certain demographics. One thing that does seem to be clear is that people who do experience brain freeze may also be more susceptible to another kind of mysterious headache: migraines. In one small study, 93% of migraine patients were also prone to brain freeze. Which has led researchers to suspect that the trigeminal nerve also plays a key role in migraines. Whatever the reason, just hang in there. Brain freeze usually only last 20-30 seconds. Go ahead and take that time to remember not to slurp so quickly next time.
Views: 143986 Science Insider
Here's What Will Happen When The Sun Dies
 
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The Sun is currently in the middle of the stable section of its life cycle, and will stay there for the next 4.5 to 5.5 billion years. As it gets closer to depleting its hydrogen supply, there will be severe consequences for life on Earth. Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsi... Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_ins... Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider
Views: 236980 Science Insider
What Happens To Fish During A Hurricane
 
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Hurricanes can be just as deadly for marine life, sometimes stranding them on land or far out at sea. But sometimes marine life benefits or even thrives after these extreme weather events. ------------------------------------------------------ #Hurricane #MarineLife Science Insider tells you all you need to know about science: space, medicine, biotech, physiology, and more. Subscribe to our channel and visit us at: http://www.businessinsider.com/science Science Insider on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BusinessInsiderScience/ Science Insider on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/science_insider/ Business Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/businessinsider Tech Insider on Twitter: https://twitter.com/techinsider What Happens To Fish During A Hurricane ------------------------------------------------------ Following is a transcript of the video:
Views: 1432004 Science Insider

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