Home
Videos uploaded by user “The Audiopedia”
What is COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? What does COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT mean?
 
02:50
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT? What does COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT mean? COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT meaning - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT definition - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The United Nations defines community development as "a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems." It is a broad term given to the practices of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more resilient local communities. Community development is also understood as a professional discipline, and is defined by the International Association for Community Development (www.iacdglobal.org), the global network of community development practitioners and scholars, as "a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes participative democracy, sustainable development, rights, economic opportunity, equality and social justice, through the organisation, education and empowerment of people within their communities, whether these be of locality, identity or interest, in urban and rural settings". Community development seeks to empower individuals and groups of people with the skills they need to effect change within their communities. These skills are often created through the formation of social groups working for a common agenda. Community developers must understand both how to work with individuals and how to affect communities' positions within the context of larger social institutions. Community development as a term has taken off widely in anglophone countries i.e. the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand and other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations. It is also used in some countries in Eastern Europe with active community development associations in Hungary and Romania. The Community Development Journal, published by Oxford University Press, since 1966 has aimed to be the major forum for research and dissemination of international community development theory and practice. Community development approaches are recognised internationally. These methods and approaches have been acknowledged as significant for local social, economic, cultural, environmental and political development by such organisations as the UN, WHO, OECD, World Bank, Council of Europe and EU.
Views: 19456 The Audiopedia
What is GOOD GOVERNANCE? What does GOOD GOVERNANCE mean? GOOD GOVERNANCE meaning & explanation
 
03:36
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is GOOD GOVERNANCE? What does GOOD GOVERNANCE mean? GOOD GOVERNANCE meaning - GOOD GOVERNANCE definition - GOOD GOVERNANCE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources. Governance is "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented)". The term governance can apply to corporate, international, national, local governance or to the interactions between other sectors of society. The concept of "good governance" often emerges as a model to compare ineffective economies or political bodies with viable economies and political bodies. The concept centers on the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. Because countries often described as "most successful" are Western liberal democratic states, concentrated in Europe and the Americas, good governance standards often measure other state institutions against these states. Aid organizations and the authorities of developed countries often will focus the meaning of "good governance" to a set of requirements that conform to the organization's agenda, making "good governance" imply many different things in many different contexts. According to Sam Agere, "The discretionary space left by the lack of a clear well-defined scope for what governance encompasses allows users to choose and set their own parameters." In the book Contesting 'good' governance, Eva Poluha and Mona Rosendahl contest standards that are common to western democracy as measures of "goodness" in government. By applying political anthropological methods, they conclude that while governments believe they apply concepts of good governance while making decisions, cultural differences can cause conflict with the heterogeneous standards of the international community. An additional source of good governance criticism is The Intelligent Person's Guide to Good Governance, written by Surendra Munshi. Munshi's work was created in order to "revive" good governance. Many individuals tend to either wave away and be bored with the idea of governance, or not have a clue to what it has at all. This book is a generalized discussion on what the purpose of good governance is and how it serves that purpose throughout our society. Munshi targets the book toward anyone doing research or just simply "those concerned with the issue of governance". Rethinking Systems: Configurations of Politics and Policy in Contemporary Governance, written by Micheal P. Crozier, is another work analyzing good governance. Crozier's article discusses the different dynamics of changes that occur throughout communication systems and the effect it has on governance. The idea of various perspectives is presented throughout the article. This allowed the reader to be able to see what contemporary governance is like through different pairs of eyes. Crozier's motive was to also create an open mindset when referring to how governance and policy within society operates, especially with the constant changes occurring day to day.
Views: 17482 The Audiopedia
What is CORPORATE LAWYER? What does CORPORATE LAWYER mean? CORPORATE LAWYER meaning
 
03:40
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is CORPORATE LAWYER? What does CORPORATE LAWYER mean? CORPORATE LAWYER meaning - CORPORATE LAWYER definition - CORPORATE LAWYER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A corporate lawyer is a lawyer who specializes in corporations law. The role of a corporate lawyer is to ensure the legality of commercial transactions, advising corporations on their legal rights and duties, including the duties and responsibilities of corporate officers. In order to do this, they must have knowledge of aspects of contract law, tax law, accounting, securities law, bankruptcy, intellectual property rights, licensing, zoning laws, and the laws specific to the business of the corporations that they work for. In recent years, controversies involving well known companies such as, Walmart and General Motors have highlighted the complex role of corporate lawyers in internal investigations, in which attorney-client privilege could be considered to shelter potential wrongdoing by the company. If a corporate lawyer's internal company clients are not assured of confidentiality, they will be less likely to seek legal advice, but keeping confidences can shelter society's access to vital information. The practice of corporate law is less adversarial than that of trial law. Lawyers for both sides of a commercial transaction are less opponents than facilitators. One lawyer (quoted by Bernstein) characterizes them as "the handmaidens of the deal". Transactions take place amongst peers. There are rarely wronged parties, underdogs, or inequities in the financial means of the participants. Corporate lawyers structure those transactions, draft documents, review agreements, negotiate deals, and attend meetings. What areas of corporate law a corporate lawyer experiences depend from where the firm that he/she works for is, geographically, and how large it is. A small-town corporate lawyer in a small firm may deal in many short-term jobs such as drafting wills, divorce settlements, and real estate transactions, whereas a corporate lawyer in a large city firm may spend many months devoted to negotiating a single business transaction. Similarly, different firms may organize their subdivisions in different ways. Not all will include mergers and acquisitions under the umbrella of a corporate law division, for example. Some corporate lawyers become partners in their firms. Others become in-house counsel for corporations. Others still migrate into other professions such as investment banking and teaching law. Some publications read by those in the profession include Global Legal Studies, Lawyers Weekly, and the National Law Journal. The salary of a corporate lawyer can vary widely: those employed by major international law firms ("BigLaw" firms) earn starting salaries of USD 180,000, which rise every year with experience (this amount excludes any additional bonus payments). Depending on the geographical location, the starting salary may be closer to USD 160,000 if the market is secondary. Attorneys employed at smaller firms tend to earn smaller salaries.
Views: 29848 The Audiopedia
What is YOUTH EMPOWERMENT? What does YOUTH EMPOWERMENT mean? YOUTH EMPOWERMENT meaning
 
02:01
What is YOUTH EMPOWERMENT? What does YOUTH EMPOWERMENT mean? YOUTH EMPOWERMENT meaning - YOUTH EMPOWERMENT definition - YOUTH EMPOWERMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Youth empowerment is a process where children and young people are encouraged to take charge of their lives. They do this by addressing their situation and then take action in order to improve their access to resources and transform their consciousness through their beliefs, values, and attitudes. Youth empowerment aims to improve quality of life. Youth empowerment is achieved through participation in youth empowerment programs. However scholars argue that children’s rights implementation should go beyond learning about formal rights and procedures to give birth to a concrete experience of rights. There are numerous models that youth empowerment programs use that help youth achieve empowerment. A variety of youth empowerment initiatives are underway around the world. These programs can be through non-profit organizations, government organizations, schools or private organizations. Youth empowerment is different than youth development because development is centered on developing individuals, while empowerment is focused on creating greater community change relies on the development of individual capacity. Empowerment movements, including youth empowerment, originate, gain momentum, become viable, and become institutionalized. Youth empowerment is often addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. Activities may focus on youth-led media, youth rights, youth councils, youth activism, youth involvement in community decision-making, and other methods.
Views: 8548 The Audiopedia
What is WELLNESS TOURISM? What does WELLNESS TOURISM mean? WELLNESS TOURISM meaning & explanation
 
03:11
What is WELLNESS TOURISM? What does WELLNESS TOURISM mean? WELLNESS TOURISM meaning - WELLNESS TOURISM definition - WELLNESS TOURISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Wellness tourism is travel for the purpose of promoting health and well-being through physical, psychological, or spiritual activities. While wellness tourism is often correlated with medical tourism because health interests motivate the traveler, wellness tourists are proactive in seeking to improve or maintain health and quality of life, often focusing on prevention, while medical tourists generally travel reactively to receive treatment for a diagnosed disease or condition. Within the US $3.4 trillion spa and wellness economy, wellness tourism is estimated to total US$494 billion or 14.6 percent of all 2013 domestic and international tourism expenditures. Driven by growth in Asia, the Middle East/North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and developing countries, wellness tourism is expected to grow 50 percent faster than the overall tourism industry over the next five years. Market is expected to grow through 2014. Wellness tourists are generally high-yield tourists, spending, on average, 130 percent more than the average tourist. In 2013, International wellness tourists spend approximately 59 percent more per trip than the average international tourist; domestic wellness tourists spend about 159 percent more than the average domestic tourist. Domestic wellness tourism is significantly larger than its international equivalent, representing 84 percent of wellness travel and 68 percent of expenditures (or $299 billion). International wellness tourism represents 16 percent of wellness travel and 32 percent of expenditures ($139 billion market). The wellness tourism market includes primary and secondary wellness tourists. Primary wellness tourists travel entirely for wellness purposes while secondary wellness tourists engage in wellness-related activities as part of a trip. Secondary wellness tourists constitute the significant majority (87 percent) of total wellness tourism trips and expenditures (85 percent). Wellness travelers pursue diverse services, including physical fitness and sports; beauty treatments; healthy diet and weight management; relaxation and stress relief; meditation; yoga; and health-related education. Wellness travelers may seek procedures or treatments using conventional, alternative, complementary, herbal, or homeopathic medicine.
Views: 2733 The Audiopedia
What is DISABILITY TAX CREDIT? What does DISABILITY TAX CREDIT mean? DISABILITY TAX CREDIT meaning
 
04:51
What is DISABILITY TAX CREDIT? What does DISABILITY TAX CREDIT mean? DISABILITY TAX CREDIT meaning - DISABILITY TAX CREDIT definition - DISABILITY TAX CREDIT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The Disability Tax Credit (DTC) is a non-refundable tax credit in Canada for individuals who have a severe and prolonged impairment in physical or mental function. An impairment qualifies as prolonged if it is expected to or has lasted at least 12 months. The DTC is required in order to qualify for the Registered Disability Savings Plan , the working income tax benefit, and the child disability benefit. Families using a Henson trust, the Canada Disability Child Benefit other estate planning methods for children with Disabilities are not excluded from the DTC and should consider whether they qualify. The individual must be "markedly restricted" in at least one of the following categories: speaking, hearing, walking, elimination (bowel or bladder functions), feeding, dressing, performing the mental functions of everyday life, life-sustaining therapy to support vital function and the recently introduced cumulative effects of significant restrictions. The degree of disability must be approved by Canada Revenue Agency before it can be used, and this process requires the completion and submission of a form. The T2201 Disability Tax Credit Certificate form must be completed by a qualified professional related to the impairment such as a medical doctor, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, psychologist, audiologist, or optometrist, in order to qualify as having a severe and prolonged impairment. The practitioner must certify on the T2201 form that the impairment meets specific conditions within the set category. The conditions vary depending on impairment. A document released by the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) in response to suggestions they made to the House of Commons Sub-Committee on the Status of Persons with Disabilities, attempts to assist medical professionals with deciphering what qualifies as being markedly restricted in the "mental functions necessary for everyday life". In 2005, the CRA introduced a new category of eligibility, "cumulative effect of significant restrictions". This category is useful for individuals who are disabled but not restricted enough to qualify as being markedly restricted. Since this was introduced in 2005,an applicant may only be able to recapture funds since that point. An applicant can file for the disability amount, back 10 years, due to the Tax Payer Relief Provisions in the Income Tax Act. The DTC amounts to C$7,687 (According to line 316) in tax savings, and if filed for the full 10 year period the possible tax savings are excess of 30,000. The DTC can be found on line 316 (for self) and line 318 (transferred to a supporting relative). If the medical practitioner charges to complete the T2201 form, applicants can claim this as a medical expense on line 330 of his/her tax return. In addition to lowering taxes, qualifying for tax credits can also be a requirement for applying for other money-saving vehicles such as the Registered Disability Savings Plan. If the person with the impairment does not have a taxable income, he/she can transfer credits to a supporting relative such as a parent, grandparent, child, sibling, grandchild, aunt, uncle, niece, or nephew. The disability amount can be transferred in either its entirety or as the remainder of what the dependent was unable to claim himself or herself. An Association of Canadian Disability Benefit Professionals was created to represent and serve a network of organizations that assist clients in registering for the disability tax credit, registered disability savings plan and other disability tax benefits. It was created by the twelve organizations specializing in this field including the biggest, the National Benefit Authority, they all committed to ACDBP Code of Conduct. The Association advocates on behalf of its members for policy and program efficiency at the federal and provincial level.
Views: 3083 The Audiopedia
What is SOCIAL WORK? What does SOCIAL WORK mean? SOCIAL WORK meaning, definition & explanation
 
04:33
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is SOCIAL WORK? What does SOCIAL WORK mean? SOCIAL WORK meaning - SOCIAL WORK definition - SOCIAL WORK explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Social Work is both an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with helping individuals, families, groups and communities enhance their social functioning and overall well-being. Social functioning refers to the way in which people perform their social roles, and the structural institutions that are provided to sustain them. Social work is underpinned by theories of social science and humanitites and guided by principles of social justice, rights, collective responsibility, and respect for diversity, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges, socioeconomic development, social cohesion and enhance well-being. Their engagement with client systems create changes and with communities they may bring about social change. Social work practice is often divided into micro-work, which involves working directly with individuals or small groups; and macro-work, which involves working communities, and within social policy, to create change on a larger scale. Social work as such began in the 20th century, with roots in voluntary philanthropy and grassroots organizing, but the practice of responding to social needs existed long before then, as evidenced primarily by a long history of private charities and religious organizations. The effects of the Industrial Revolution and the Great Depression developed and clarified popular understanding of social work into a conception of the field that mostly resembles the one that prevails today. Social work is a broad profession that intersects with several disciplines. However, although social work practice varies both through its various specialties and countries, these social work organizations offer the following definitions. “Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledges, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing." - International Federation of Social Workers "Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families, groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their own resources and those of the community to resolve problems. Social work is concerned with individual and personal problems but also with broader social issues such as poverty, unemployment and domestic violence." - Canadian Association of Social Workers Social work practice consists of the professional application of social work values, principles, and techniques to one or more of the following ends: helping people obtain tangible services; counseling and psychotherapy with individuals, families, and groups; helping communities or groups provide or improve social and health services; and participating in legislative processes. The practice of social work requires knowledge of human development and behavior; of social and economic, and cultural institutions; and of the interaction of all these factors."- National Association of Social Workers "Social workers work with individuals and families to help improve outcomes in their lives. This may be helping to protect vulnerable people from harm or abuse or supporting people to live independently. Social workers support people, act as advocates and direct people to the services they may require. Social workers often work in multi-disciplinary teams alongside health and education professionals." - British Association of Social Workers.
Views: 36766 The Audiopedia
What is DEUTERIUM? What does DEUTERIUM mean? DEUTERIUM meaning, definition & explanation
 
03:30
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is DEUTERIUM? What does DEUTERIUM mean? DEUTERIUM meaning DEUTERIUM pronunciation - DEUTERIUM definition - DEUTERIUM explanation - How to pronounce DEUTERIUM? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Deuterium (symbol D or 2H, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen. The nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, whereas the far more common hydrogen isotope, protium, has no neutron in the nucleus. Deuterium has a natural abundance in Earth's oceans of about one atom in 6420 of hydrogen. Thus deuterium accounts for approximately 0.0156% (or on a mass basis 0.0312%) of all the naturally occurring hydrogen in the oceans, while the most common isotope (hydrogen-1 or protium) accounts for more than 99.98%. The abundance of deuterium changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another (see Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). The deuterium isotope's name is formed from the Greek deuteros meaning "second", to denote the two particles composing the nucleus. Deuterium was discovered and named in 1931 by Harold Urey. When the neutron was discovered in 1932, this made the nuclear structure of deuterium obvious, and Urey won the Nobel Prize in 1934. Soon after deuterium's discovery, Urey and others produced samples of "heavy water" in which the deuterium content had been highly concentrated. Deuterium is destroyed in the interiors of stars faster than it is produced. Other natural processes are thought to produce only an insignificant amount of deuterium. Nearly all deuterium found in nature was produced in the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago, as the basic or primordial ratio of hydrogen-1 (protium) to deuterium (about 26 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms) has its origin from that time. This is the ratio found in the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter (see references 2,3 and 4). However, other astronomical bodies are found to have different ratios of deuterium to hydrogen-1. This is thought to be as a result of natural isotope separation processes that occur from solar heating of ices in comets. Like the water-cycle in Earth's weather, such heating processes may enrich deuterium with respect to protium. The analysis of deuterium/protium ratios in comets found results very similar to the mean ratio in Earth's oceans (156 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogens). This reinforces theories that much of Earth's ocean water is of cometary origin. The deuterium/protium ratio of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as measured by the Rosetta space probe, is about three times that of earth water. This figure is the highest yet measured in a comet. Deuterium/protium ratios thus continue to be an active topic of research in both astronomy and climatology.
Views: 135786 The Audiopedia
What is SPORTS TOURISM? What does SPORTS TOURISM mean? SPORTS TOURISM meaning & explanation
 
03:43
What is SPORTS TOURISM? What does SPORTS TOURISM mean? SPORTS TOURISM meaning - SPORTS TOURISM definition - SPORTS TOURISM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Sports tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sporting event staying apart from their usual environment. Sport tourism is a fast-growing sector of the global travel industry and equates to $7.68 billion. There are several classifications on sport tourism. Gammon and Robinson suggested that the sports tourism are defined as Hard Sports Tourism and Soft Sports Tourism, while Gibson suggested that there are three types of sports tourism included Sports Event Tourism, Celebrity and Nostalgia Sport Tourism and Active Sport Tourism. The "hard" definition of sport tourism refers to the quantity of people participating at a competitive sport events. Normally these kinds of events are the motivation that attract visitors visits the events. Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup, F1 Grand Prix and regional events such as NASCAR Sprint Cup Series could be described as hard sports tourism. The "soft" definition of sports tourism is when the tourist travels to participate in recreational sporting, or signing up for leisure interests. Hiking, Skiing and Canoeing can be described as soft sports tourism. Perhaps the most common form of soft sports tourism involves golf in regards to destinations in Europe and the United States. A large number of people are interested in playing some of the world's greatest and highest ranked courses, and take great pride in checking those destinations off of their list of places to visit. Sport event tourism refers to the visitors who visit a city to watch events. The two events that attract the most tourists worldwide are the Olympics and the FIFA World Cup. These events held once every four years, in a different city in the world. Sports tourism in the United States is more focused on events that happen annually. The major event for the National Football League is the Super Bowl, held at the end of the year in different city every year. The National Hockey League started the annual NHL Winter Classic game in 2008, this annual New Year's outdoor hockey game has become a huge hit, rivaling the championship Stanley Cup Tournament in popularity. It has revitalized the NHL. The newest trend in college basketball is to start the season off with annual tournaments such as the Maui Invitational held in Hawaii, and the Battle for Atlantis which is played in the Bahamas. This idea of pairing quality sports events with the Bahamas attractions, raised the islands’ profile and brought in more visitors and dollars to the country. The Battle for Atlantis brought more than 5,000 fans in during Thanksgiving week for the three-day tournament. The event helped increase hotel capacity from what is typically around 60 percent this time of year to 90 percent. sports tourism "is a growing market and many different cities and countries want to be involved,” Celebrity and nostalgia sport tourism involves visits to the sports halls of fame and venue and meeting sports personalities in a vacation basis. Active sport tourism refers to those who participate in the sports or events.
Views: 4239 The Audiopedia
What is CROP SIMULATION MODEL? What does CROP SIMULATION MODEL mean?
 
01:56
What is CROP SIMULATION MODEL? What does CROP SIMULATION MODEL mean? CROP SIMULATION MODEL meaning - CROP SIMULATION MODEL definition - CROP SIMULATION MODEL explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A Crop Simulation Model (CSM) is a simulation model that helps estimate crop yield as a function of weather conditions, soil conditions, and choice of crop management practices. Crop simulation models have been classified into three broad categories: Statistical models: These typically rely on yield information for large areas (such as counties), and identify broad trends. The two main trends identified are a secular trend of a gradual increase in crop yield, and variation based on weather conditions. Statistical models are a significant improvement over naive historical predictions, but are not preferred for very fine-grained predictions. Mechanistic models: These attempt to use fundamental mechanisms of plant and soil processes to simulate specific outcomes. These involve fairly detailed and computation-intensive simulations. These models use a continuous evolution and simulating them previously requires a small time step. Functional models: These use simplified closed functional forms to simulate complex processes. They are computationally easier than mechanistic models, and can often give results that are of only somewhat worse accuracy. The Penman equation is an example of an equation that might be used as a component of a functional model. Functional models are typically run using a daily time step and the data is updated daily.
Views: 3134 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW? What does INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW mean?
 
04:06
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW? What does INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW mean? INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW meaning - INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW definition -INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello). It is that branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protecting persons who are not participating in hostilities, and by restricting and regulating the means and methods of warfare available to combatants. IHL is inspired by considerations of humanity and the mitigation of human suffering. "It comprises a set of rules, established by treaty or custom, that seeks to protect persons and property/objects that are (or may be) affected by armed conflict and limits the rights of parties to a conflict to use methods and means of warfare of their choice". It includes "the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Conventions, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law." It defines the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations, and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning non-combatants. It is designed to balance humanitarian concerns and military necessity, and subjects warfare to the rule of law by limiting its destructive effect and mitigating human suffering. Serious violations of international humanitarian law are called war crimes. International humanitarian law, jus in bello, regulates the conduct of forces when engaged in war or armed conflict. It is distinct from jus ad bellum which regulates the conduct of engaging in war or armed conflict and includes crimes against peace and of war of aggression. Together the jus in bello and jus ad bellum comprise the two strands of the laws of war governing all aspects of international armed conflicts. The law is mandatory for nations bound by the appropriate treaties. There are also other customary unwritten rules of war, many of which were explored at the Nuremberg War Trials. By extension, they also define both the permissive rights of these powers as well as prohibitions on their conduct when dealing with irregular forces and non-signatories. International humanitarian law operates on a strict division between rules applicable in international armed conflict and internal armed conflict. This dichotomy is widely criticized. The relationship between international human rights law and international humanitarian law is disputed among international law scholars. This discussion forms part of a larger discussion on fragmentation of international law. While pluralist scholars conceive international human rights law as being distinct from international humanitarian law, proponents of the constitutionalist approach regard the latter as a subset of the former. In a nutshell, those who favors separate, self-contained regimes emphasize the differences in applicability; international humanitarian law applies only during armed conflict. On the other hand, a more systemic perspective explains that international humanitarian law represents a function of international human rights law; it includes general norms that apply to everyone at all time as well as specialized norms which apply to certain situations such as armed conflict and military occupation (i.e., IHL) or to certain groups of people including refugees (e.g., the 1951 Refugee Convention), children (the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child), and prisoners of war (the 1949 Third Geneva Convention).
Views: 19315 The Audiopedia
What is SELF CONTROL THEORY OF CRIME? What does SELF CONTROL THEORY OF CRIME mean?
 
04:58
What is SELF CONTROL THEORY OF CRIME? What does SELF CONTROL THEORY OF CRIME mean? SELF CONTROL THEORY OF CRIME meaning - SELF CONTROL THEORY OF CRIME definition - SELF CONTROL THEORY OF CRIME explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The self-control theory of crime, often referred to as the general theory of crime, is a criminological theory about the lack of individual self-control as the main factor behind criminal behavior. The self-control theory of crime suggests that individuals who were ineffectually parented before the age of ten develop less self-control than individuals of approximately the same age who were raised with better parenting. Research has also found that low levels of self-control are correlated with criminal and impulsive conduct. The theory was originally developed by criminologists Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson, but has since been subject to a great deal of theoretical debate and a large and growing empirical literature. Springing from interest i'n bonding theory, Hirschi—in co-operation with Gottfredson—has developed the "General Theory of Crime" or self-control theory from 1990 onwards. Based on the empirical observation of the strong, consistent connection between criminal behavior and age, Hirschi and Gottfredson theorized the single most important factor behind crime is individual lack of self-control. Individual self-control improves with age as a result of many factors: changing biology through hormonal development, socialization and increasing opportunity costs of losing control. In addition, criminal acts are often markedly non-controlled; they are both opportunistic and short-sighted. The self-control theory of crime shares similar fundamental traits with the theory of ego depletion. They both state that people are more motivated to pursue their immediate desires and that the satisfaction of their pleasures is universal. In early psychology, psychoanalist and neurologist Freud (1911, 1959) established a foundation for the concept of self-control with his "pleasure-principle" and "reality-principle," Respectively, these principles refer to the desire for immediate gratification and the delay of gratification. The pleasure principle drives an individual to look for pleasure and to avoid pain. However, the individual learn the necessity of standing the pain and delaying gratification as the process grew up, because of the obstacles of the realities of life. Following the basic principles, in recent studies in psychology, the self-control concept refers to an individual's decision or ability to delay immediate gratification of desires in order to reach larger alternative goals. Contrary to the general theory of crime that presents low self-control as a characteristic of an individual that influences one's behavior, the criminal spin theory presents the reduce of self-control as a phenomenological process. This process can be acute, a one-time only that is not typical to the individual, or it can develop into a chronic state, in which participation in criminal activities becomes central to the individual life. In addition, the criminal spin theory claims that such a process that leads to a state of reduced self-control can be seen in individuals, groups (e.g., group rape) of even larger social entities (e.g., local communities). Akers (1991) argued that a major weakness of this new theory was that Gottfredson and Hirschi did not define self-control and the tendency toward criminal behavior separately. By not deliberately operationalising self-control traits and criminal behavior or criminal acts individually, it suggests that the concepts of low self-control and propensity for criminal behavior are one and the same. Hirschi and Gottfredson (1993) replied to Akers argument by suggesting it was actually an indication of the consistency of the General Theory. That is, the theory is internally consistent by conceptualizing crime and deriving from that a concept of the offender's traits. The research community remains divided on whether the General Theory of Crime is sustainable but there is emerging confirmation of some of its predictions (e.g. LaGrange & Silverman: 1999). A number of empirical studies—including meta-analysis—have confirmed that individual self-control is in fact one of the strongest predictors of crime, when compared to a range of factors at various levels of analysis.
Views: 4550 The Audiopedia
What is FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS? What does FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS mean?
 
04:47
What is FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS? What does FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS mean? FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS meaning - FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS definition - FOREIGN POLICY ANALYSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Foreign policy analysis (FPA) is a branch of political science dealing with theory development and empirical study regarding the processes and outcomes of foreign policy. Foreign policy analysis is the study of the management of external relations and activities of state. Foreign policy involves goals, strategies, measures, methods, guidelines, directives, agreements, and so on. National governments may conduct international relations not only with other nation-states but also with international organizations and non-governmental organizations. Managing foreign relations need carefully considered plans of actions that are adapted to foreign interests and concerns of the government. Foreign policy analysis involves the study of how a state makes foreign policy. As it analyzes the decision making process, FPA involves the study of both international and domestic politics. FPA also draws upon the study of diplomacy, war, intergovernmental organizations, and economic sanctions, each of which are means by which a state may implement foreign policy. In academia, foreign policy analysis is most commonly taught within the discipline of public policy within political science or political studies, and the study of international relations. FPA can also be considered a sub-field of the study of international relations, which aims to understand the processes behind foreign policy decision making. The most prominent scholars in this field of study include Richard Snyder, James Rosenau, Alexander George, Graham Allison and Irving Janis. According to foreignpolicyanalysis.org, "As a field of study, foreign policy analysis is characterized by its actor-specific focus. In the simplest terms, it is the study of the process, effects, causes, or outputs of foreign policy decision-making in either a comparative or case-specific manner. The underlying and often implicit argument theorizes that human beings, acting as a group or within a group, compose and cause change in international politics." In other words, Foreign Policy Analysis can be understood as a critique of the dominant structuralist approaches in international relations. The making of foreign policy involves a number of stages: Assessment of the international and domestic political environment - Foreign policy is made and implemented within an international and domestic political context, which must be understood by a state in order to determine the best foreign policy option. For example, a state may need to respond to an international crisis. Goal setting - A state has multiple foreign policy goals. A state must determine which goal is affected by the international and domestic political environment at any given time. In addition, foreign policy goals may conflict, which will require the state to prioritize. Determination of policy options - A state must then determine what policy options are available to meet the goal or goals set in light of the political environment. This will involve an assessment of the state's capacity implement policy options and an assessment of the consequences of each policy option. Formal decision making action - A formal foreign policy decision will be taken at some level within a government. Foreign policy decisions are usually made by the executive branch of government. Common governmental actors or institutions which make foreign policy decisions include: the head of state (such as a president) or head of government (such as a prime minister), cabinet, or minister. Implementation of chosen policy option - Once a foreign policy option has been chosen, and a formal decision has been made, then the policy must be implemented. Foreign policy is most commonly implemented by specialist foreign policy arms of the state bureaucracy, such as a Ministry of Foreign Affairs or State Department. Other departments may also have a role in implementing foreign policy, such as departments for: trade, defence, and aid.
Views: 9620 The Audiopedia
What is INSTRUMENTATION? What does INSTRUMENTATION mean? INSTRUMENTATION meaning & explanation
 
03:13
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INSTRUMENTATION? What does INSTRUMENTATION mean? INSTRUMENTATION meaning - INSTRUMENTATION pronunciation - INSTRUMENTATION definition - INSTRUMENTATION explanation - How to pronounce INSTRUMENTATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Instrumentation is the development or use of measuring instruments for observation, monitoring or control. An instrument is a device that measures a physical quantity, such as flow, temperature, level, distance, angle, or pressure. Instruments may be as simple as direct reading hand-held thermometers or as complex as multi-variable process analyzers. Although instrumentation is often used to measure and control process variables within a laboratory or manufacturing area, it can be found in the household as well. A smoke detector is one example of a common instrument found in many western homes. Ralph Müller (1940) states "That the history of physical science is largely the history of instruments and their intelligent use is well known. The broad generalizations and theories which have arisen from time to time have stood or fallen on the basis of accurate measurement, and in several instances new instruments have had to be devised for the purpose. There is little evidence to show that the mind of modern man is superior to that of the ancients. His tools are incomparably better." Davis Baird has argued that the major change associated with Floris Cohen's identification of a "fourth big scientific revolution" after World War II is the development of scientific instrumentation, not only in chemistry but across the sciences. In chemistry, the introduction of new instrumentation in the 1940s was "nothing less than a scientific and technological revolution" in which classical wet-and-dry methods of structural organic chemistry were discarded, and new areas of research opened up. The ability to make precise, verifiable and reproducible measurements of the natural world, at levels that were not previously observable, using scientific instrumentation, has "provided a different texture of the world". This instrumentation revolution fundamentally changes human abilities to monitor and respond, as is illustrated in the examples of DDT monitoring and the use of UV spectrophotometry and gas chromatography to monitor water pollutants. The control of processes is one of the main branches of applied instrumentation. Instruments are often part of a control system in refineries, factories, and vehicles. Instruments attached to a control system may provide signals used to operate a variety of other devices, and to support either remote or automated control capabilities. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control system. As early as 1954, Wildhack discussed both the productive and destructive potential inherent in process control.
Views: 30860 The Audiopedia
What is BRANDING AGENCY? What does BRANDING AGENCY mean? BRANDING AGENCY meaning & explanation
 
02:50
What is BRANDING AGENCY? What does BRANDING AGENCY mean? BRANDING AGENCY meaning - BRANDING AGENCY definition - BRANDING AGENCY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A branding agency is a firm that specializes in creating and launching brands, as well as rebranding. The role of a branding agency is to create, plan and manage branding strategies for clients, but can also involve support in terms of advertising and other forms of promotion. In order to develop a more profound understanding of the function of these organizations it is initially important to capture the idea of branding. In short, branding is the process of developing a company's brand, including a name, identity system and messaging platform. These aspects will develop what is referred to as a brand message, which will then be applied to marketing campaigns to spread that message. A brand represents a promise to your customers, what they can expect from your products/services, and essentially what differentiates your offering from competitors. It is a vital element across all industries, as it allows organizations to gain competitive advantage, define a coherent brand communication strategy, and to increase and reach the target market. All organizational sectors, whether it is a business, non-profit organization, or even a government agency, use branding agencies. Most often, organizations look to hire branding agencies in order to produce brand strategy and brand identity. There is generally a misconception regarding the relationship between these two agencies. Often, branding agencies and advertising agencies are seen as being interchangeable entities. This however is not the case, and although they overlap in some respects, their scope and focus is different. Essentially, the difference between these two agencies is the difference between strategy (branding) and tactics (advertising). Brands play an integral role in a firm's business strategy. In fact, the terms "company" and "brand" are often used synonymously for one another. On the other hand, advertising is more focussed on the process which firms use to market and communicate to existing and potential customers. A branding agency goes beyond this scope, and whilst commonly performing similar services to a traditional advertising agency, is involved in a larger strategical process.
Views: 4411 The Audiopedia
What is DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY? What does DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY mean?
 
03:40
What is DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY? What does DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY mean? DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY meaning - DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY definition - DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments. Developmental disabilities cause individuals living with them many difficulties in certain areas of life, especially in "language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living". Developmental disabilities can be detected early on, and do persist throughout an individual's lifespan. Developmental disability that affects all areas of a child's development is sometimes referred to as global developmental delay. Most common developmental disabilities: - Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is thought to cause autism and intellectual disability, usually among boys. - Down syndrome is a condition in which people are born with an extra copy of chromosome 21. Normally, a person is born with two copies of chromosome 21. However, if they are born with Down syndrome, they have an extra copy of this chromosome. This extra copy affects the development of the body and brain, causing physical and mental challenges for the individual. - Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. - Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. FASDs are 100% preventable if a woman does not drink alcohol during pregnancy. - Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person’s ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. - Intellectual disability, also (sometimes proscriptively) known as mental retardation, is defined as an IQ below 70 along with limitations in adaptive functioning and onset before the age of 18 years. The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and remain unknown in a large proportion of cases. Even in cases of known etiology the line between "cause" and "effect" is not always clear, leading to difficulty in categorizing causes. Genetic factors have long been implicated in the causation of developmental disabilities. There is also a large environmental component to these conditions, and the relative contributions of nature versus nurture have been debated for decades. Current theories on causation focus on genetic factors, and over 1,000 known genetic conditions include developmental disabilities as a symptom. Developmental disabilities affect between 1 and 2% of the population in most western countries, although many government sources acknowledge that statistics are flawed in this area. The worldwide proportion of people with developmental disabilities is believed to be approximately 1.4%. It is twice as common in males as in females, and some researchers have found that the prevalence of mild developmental disabilities is likely to be higher in areas of poverty and deprivation, and among people of certain ethnicities.
Views: 6100 The Audiopedia
What is SUPERVISOR? What does SUPERVISOR mean? SUPERVISOR meaning, definition & explanation
 
03:40
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is SUPERVISOR? What does SUPERVISOR mean? SUPERVISOR meaning - SUPERVISOR pronunciation - SUPERVISOR definition - SUPERVISOR explanation - How to pronounce SUPERVISOR? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Supervisor, when the meaning sought is similar to foreman, foreperson, boss, overseer, cell coach, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace. A Supervisor can also be one of the most senior in the staff at the place of work, such as a Professor who oversees a PhD dissertation. Supervision, on the other hand, can be performed by people without this formal title, for example by parents. The term Supervisor itself can be used to refer to any personnel who have this task as part of their job description. An employee is a supervisor if he has the power and authority to do the following actions (according to the Ontario Ministry of Labour): 1. Give instructions and/or orders to subordinates. 2. Be held responsible for the work and actions of other employees. If an employee cannot do the above, legally, he or she is probably not a supervisor, but in some other category, such as a work group leader or lead hand. A supervisor is first and foremost an overseer whose main responsibility is to ensure that a group of subordinates get out the assigned amount of production, when they are supposed to do it and within acceptable levels of quality, costs and safety. A supervisor is responsible for the productivity and actions of a small group of employees. The supervisor has several manager-like roles, responsibilities, and powers. Two of the key differences between a supervisor and a manager are (1) the supervisor does not typically have "hire and fire" authority, and (2) the supervisor does not have budget authority. Lacking "hire and fire" authority means that a supervisor may not recruit the employees working in the supervisor's group nor does the supervisor have the authority to terminate an employee. The supervisor may participate in the hiring process as part of interviewing and assessing candidates, but the actual hiring authority rests in the hands of a Human Resource Manager. The supervisor may recommend to management that a particular employee be terminated and the supervisor may be the one who documents the behaviors leading to the recommendation but the actual firing authority rests in the hands of a manager. Lacking budget authority means that a supervisor is provided a budget developed by management within which constraints the supervisor is expected to provide a productive environment for the employees of the supervisor's work group. A supervisor will usually have the authority to make purchases within specified limits. A supervisor is also given the power to approve work hours and other payroll issues. Normally, budget affecting requests such as travel will require not only the supervisor's approval but the approval of one or more layers of management. As a member of management, a supervisor's main job is more concerned with orchestrating and controlling work rather than performing it directly.
Views: 82423 The Audiopedia
What is HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT? What does HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT mean?
 
04:48
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT? What does HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT mean? HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT meaning - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT definition - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Human resource management (HRM or simply HR) is the management of human resources. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems). HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental laws. HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. It was initially dominated by transactional work, such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advances, and further research, HR as of 2015 focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion. Human Resources is a business field focused on maximizing employee productivity. Human Resources professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can be specialists focusing in on recruiting, training, employee relations or benefits. Recruiting specialists are in charge of finding and hiring top talent. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations and reward programs. Employee relations deals with concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as harassment or discrimination. Someone in benefits develops compensation structures, family leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are Human Resources Generalists or Business Partners. These human resources professionals could work in all areas or be labor relations representatives working with unionized employees. In startup companies, trained professionals may perform HR duties. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision-making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession, institutions of higher education, professional associations, and companies themselves have established programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function. Academic and practitioner organizations may produce field-specific publications. HR is also a field of research study that is popular within the fields of management and industrial/organizational psychology, with research articles appearing in a number of academic journals, including those mentioned later in this article. Businesses are moving globally and forming more diverse teams. It is the role of human resources to make sure that these teams can function and people are able to communicate cross culturally and across borders. Due to changes in business, current topics in human resources are diversity and inclusion as well as using technology to advance employee engagement. In the current global work environment, most companies focus on lowering employee turnover and on retaining the talent and knowledge held by their workforce. New hiring not only entails a high cost but also increases the risk of a newcomer not being able to replace the person who worked in a position before. HR departments strive to offer benefits that will appeal to workers, thus reducing the risk of losing corporate knowledge.
Views: 79923 The Audiopedia
What is MASS COMMUNICATION? What does MASS COMMUNICATION mean? MASS COMMUNICATION meaning
 
06:32
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is MASS COMMUNICATION? What does MASS COMMUNICATION mean? MASS COMMUNICATION meaning - MASS COMMUNICATION definition - MASS COMMUNICATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Mass communication is the study of how people exchange information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. In other words, mass communication refers to the imparting and exchanging of information on a large scale to a wide range of people. It is usually understood to relate newspaper, magazine, and book publishing, as well as radio, television and film, even via internet as these mediums are used for disseminating information, news and advertising. Mass communication differs from the studies of other forms of communication, such as interpersonal communication or organizational communication, in that it focuses on a single source transmitting information to a large number of receivers. The study of mass communication is chiefly concerned with how the content of mass communication persuades or otherwise affects the behavior, attitude, opinion, or emotion of the person or people receiving the information. Mass communication is "the process by which a person, group of people, or organization creates a message and transmits it through some type of medium to a large, anonymous, heterogeneous audience." This implies that the audience of mass communication are mostly made up of different cultures, behavior and belief systems. Mass communication is regularly associated with media influence or media effects, and media studies. Mass communication is a branch of social science that falls under the larger umbrella of communication studies of communication The history of communication stretches from prehistoric forms of art and writing through modern communication methods such as the Internet. Mass communication began when humans could transmit messages from a single source to multiple receivers. Mass communication has moved from theories such as the hypodermic needle model (or magic bullet theory) through more modern theories such as computer-mediated communication. In the United States, the study of mass communication is often associated with the practical applications of journalism (Print media), television and radio broadcasting, film, public relations, or advertising. With the diversification of media options, the study of communication has extended to include social media and new media, which have stronger feedback models than traditional media sources. While the field of mass communication is continually evolving, the following four fields are generally considered the major areas of study within mass communication. They exist in different forms and configurations at different schools or universities, but are (in some form) practiced at most institutions that study mass communicatin Advertising, in relation to mass communication, refers to marketing a product or service in a persuasive manner that encourages the audience to buy the product or use the service. Because advertising generally takes place through some form of mass media, such as television, studying the effects and methods of advertising is relevant to the study of mass communication. Advertising is the paid, impersonal, one-way marketing of persuasive information from a sponsor. Through mass communication channels, the sponsor promotes the adoption of goods, services or ideas. Advertisers have full control of the message being sent to their audience....
Views: 43084 The Audiopedia
What is ALUMNI ASSOCIATION? What does ALUMNI ASSOCIATION mean? ALUMNI ASSOCIATION meaning
 
02:11
What is ALUMNI ASSOCIATION? What does ALUMNI ASSOCIATION mean? ALUMNI ASSOCIATION meaning - ALUMNI ASSOCIATION definition - ALUMNI ASSOCIATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ An alumni association is an association of graduates or, more broadly, of former students (alumni). In the United Kingdom and the United States, alumni of universities, colleges, schools (especially independent schools), fraternities, and sororities often form groups with alumni from the same organization. These associations often organize social events, publish newsletters or magazines, and raise funds for the organization. Many provide a variety of benefits and services that help alumni maintain connections to their educational institution and fellow graduates. In the US, most associations do not require its members to be an alumnus of a university to enjoy membership and privileges. Additionally, such groups often support new alumni, and provide a forum to form new friendships and business relationships with people of similar background. Alumni associations are mainly organized around universities or departments of universities, but may also be organized among students that studied in a certain country. In the past, they were often considered to be the university's or school's old boy society (or old boys network). Today, alumni associations involve graduates of all age groups and demographics. Alumni associations are often organized into chapters by city, region, or country. Alumni associations can also include associations of former employees of a business. An alumnus of a company is a person who was formerly employed by it. These associations are growing in popularity and becoming an important part of a personal business network.
Views: 7195 The Audiopedia
What is PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? What does PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION mean?
 
02:30
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? What does PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION mean? PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION meaning - PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION definition - PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies." Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct" Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources (H.R.) administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, and cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government. In the US, civil servants and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted American civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration." The field is multidisciplinary in character; one of the various proposals for public administration's sub-fields sets out six pillars, including human resources, organizational theory, policy analysis and statistics, budgeting, and ethics.
Views: 56684 The Audiopedia
What is EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION? What does EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION mean?
 
03:31
What is EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION? What does EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION mean? EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION meaning - EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION definition - EDUCATIONAL ACCREDITATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Educational accreditation is a type of quality assurance process under which services and operations of educational institutions or programs are evaluated by an external body to determine if applicable standards are met. If standards are met, accredited status is granted by the appropriate agency. In most countries the function of educational accreditation is conducted by a government organization, such as a Ministry of Education. In the United States a quality assurance process exists that is independent of government and performed by private non-profit organizations. Those organizations are formally called accreditors. All accreditors in the US must in turn be recognized by the National Advisory Committee on Institutional Quality and Integrity (NACIQI), which is an advisory body to the U.S. Secretary of Education, in order to receive federal funding and any other type of federal recognition. Therefore, the federal government is the principal architect and controlling authority of accreditation. The U.S. accreditation process was developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century after educational institutions perceived a need for improved coordination and articulation between secondary and post-secondary educational institutions, along with standardization of requirements between the two levels. Accreditation of higher education varies by jurisdiction and may be focused on either or both the institution or the individual programs of study. Higher education accreditation in the United States has long been established as a peer review process coordinated by accreditation commissions and member institutions. The federal government began to play a limited role in higher education accreditation in 1952 with the reauthorization of the GI Bill for Korean War veterans. With the creation of the U.S. Department of Education and under the terms of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, the U.S. Secretary of Education is required by law to publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies for higher education. In the United States, there is no federal government list of recognized accreditation agencies for primary and secondary schools like there is for higher education. Public schools must adhere to criteria set by the state governments, and there is wide variation among the individual states in the requirements applied to non-public primary and secondary schools. There are six regional accreditors in the United States that have historically accredited elementary schools, junior high schools, middle schools, high schools, as well as institutions of higher education. Some of the regional accreditors, such as AdvancED, and some independent associations, such as the Association of Christian Schools International, have expanded their accreditation activity to include schools outside of the United States.
Views: 3553 The Audiopedia
What is COMMUNITY POLICING? What does COMMUNITY POLICING mean? COMMUNITY POLICING meaning
 
03:19
What is COMMUNITY POLICING? What does COMMUNITY POLICING mean? COMMUNITY POLICING meaning - COMMUNITY POLICING definition - COMMUNITY POLICING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Community policing, or community-oriented policing, is a strategy of policing that focuses on police building ties and working closely with members of the communities. In the United States, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 established the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) within the Justice Department to promote community policing. Community policing is a policy that requires police to inherit a proactive approach to address public safety concerns. Community-oriented policing was a cornerstone of the Clinton Administration and gained its funding from the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. The overall assessment of community oriented policing is positive, as both officers and community members attest to its effectiveness in reducing crime and raising the sense of security in a community. "Community policing is a philosophy of full service personalized policing, where the same officer patrols and works in the same area on a permanent basis, from a decentralized place, working in a proactive partnership with citizens to identify and solve problems." —Bertus Ferreira Community policing creates partnerships between law enforcement agency and other organizations like government agencies, community members, nonprofit service providers, private businesses and the media. The media represent a powerful pattern by which the police can communicate with the community. Community policing recognizes that police cannot solve every public safety problem alone, so interactive partnerships are created. The policing uses the public for developing problem-solving solutions. The contemporary community policing movement emphasizes changing the role of law enforcement from a static, reactive, incident-driven bureaucracy to a more dynamic, open, quality-oriented partnership with the community. Community policing philosophy emphasizes that police officers work closely with local citizens and community agencies in designing and implementing a variety of crime prevention strategies and problem-solving measures. Common implementations of community-policing include: Relying on community-based crime prevention by utilizing civilian education, neighborhood watch, and a variety of other techniques, as opposed to relying solely on police patrols. Re-structuralizing of patrol from an emergency response based system to emphasizing proactive techniques such as foot patrol. Increased officer accountability to civilians they are supposed to serve. Decentralizing the police authority, allowing more discretion amongst lower-ranking officers, and more initiative expected from them.
Views: 9624 The Audiopedia
What is CLINICAL NURSE LEADER? What does CLINICAL NURSE LEADER mean? CLINICAL NURSE LEADER meaning
 
03:26
What is CLINICAL NURSE LEADER? What does CLINICAL NURSE LEADER mean? CLINICAL NURSE LEADER meaning - CLINICAL NURSE LEADER definition - CLINICAL NURSE LEADER explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) is a relatively new nursing role that was developed in the United States to prepare highly skilled nurses focused on the improvement of quality and safety outcomes for patients or patient populations. The CNL is a registered nurse, with a Master of Science in Nursing who has completed advanced nursing coursework, including classes in pathophysiology, clinical assessment, finance management, epidemiology, healthcare systems leadership, clinical informatics, and pharmacology. CNLs are healthcare systems specialists that oversee patient care coordination, assess health risks, develop quality improvement strategies, facilitate team communication, and implement evidence-based solutions at the unit (microsystem) level. CNLs often work with clinical nurse specialists to help plan and coordinate complex patient care. The American Association of the Colleges of Nursing (AACN) delineates revised and updated competencies, curriculum development, and required clinical experiences expected of every graduate of a CNL master's education program, along with the minimum set of clinical experiences required to attain the end of program competencies. The Commission on Nurse Certification (CNC), an autonomous arm of the AACN, provides certification for the Clinical Nurse Leader. The AACN, along with nurse executives and nurse educators designed the Clinical Nurse Leader role (the first new role in nursing in 35 years) in response to the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) comprehensive report on medical errors, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, released in November 1999. The report, extrapolating data from two previous studies, estimates that somewhere between 44,000 and 98,000 Americans die each year as a result of medical errors. Joint participation by education and practice leaders was instrumental in the successful creation of the CNL role. Among stakeholders joining the AACN on the Implementation Task Force (ITF) were the American Organization of Nurse Executives (AONE) and the Department of Veteran Affairs (DVA). Within the healthcare system, the need for nurses with the skill and knowledge set of the CNL had already been identified and nurses were completing both academic and clinical work without receiving recognition for the advanced competencies being acquired. The first CNL certification exam was held in April and May 2007. In July 2007, AACN Board of Directors approved the revised white paper on the Education and Role of the Clinical Nurse Leader. Currently, 2500 CNLs have been certified and are able to use the credential and title of CNL.
Views: 2243 The Audiopedia
What is MARINE ENGINEERING? What does MARINE ENGINEERING mean? MARINE ENGINEERING meaning
 
02:59
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is MARINE ENGINEERING? What does MARINE ENGINEERING mean? MARINE ENGINEERING meaning - MARINE ENGINEERING definition - MARINE ENGINEERING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Marine engineering includes the engineering of boats, ships, oil rigs and any other marine vessel or structure, as well as oceanographic engineering. Specifically, marine engineering is the discipline of applying engineering sciences, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering, and computer science, to the development, design, operation and maintenance of watercraft propulsion and on-board systems and oceanographic technology. It includes but is not limited to power and propulsion plants, machinery, piping, automation and control systems for marine vehicles of any kind, such as surface ships and submarines. The purely mechanical ship operation aspect of marine engineering has some relationship with naval architecture. However, whereas naval architects are concerned with the overall design of the ship and its propulsion through the water, marine engineers are focused towards the main propulsion plant, the powering and mechanization aspects of the ship functions such as steering, anchoring, cargo handling, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, electrical power generation and electrical power distribution, interior and exterior communication, and other related requirements. In some cases, the responsibilities of each industry collide and is not specific to either field. Propellers are examples of one of these types of responsibilities. For naval architects a propeller is a hydrodynamic device. For marine engineers a propeller acts similarly to a pump. Hull vibration, excited by the propeller, is another such area. Noise control and shock hardening must be the joint responsibility of both the naval architect and the marine engineer. In fact, most issues caused by machinery are responsibilities in general. Not all marine engineering is concerned with moving vessels. Offshore construction, also called offshore engineering, maritime engineering, is concerned with the technical design of fixed and floating marine structures, such as oil platforms and offshore wind farms. Oceanographic engineering is concerned with mechanical, electrical, and electronic, and computing technology deployed to support oceanography, and also falls under the umbrella of marine engineering, especially in Britain, where it is covered by the same professional organisation, the IMarEST.
Views: 32988 The Audiopedia
What is TELECOMMUTING? What does TELECOMMUTING mean? TELECOMMUTING meaning & explanation
 
03:53
What is TELECOMMUTING? What does TELECOMMUTING mean? TELECOMMUTING meaning - TELECOMMUTING pronunciation - TELECOMMUTING definition - TELECOMMUTING explanation - How to pronounce TELECOMMUTING? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Telecommuting is a work arrangement in which employees do not commute or travel by bus or car to a central place of work, such as an office building, warehouse or store. Teleworkers in the 2000s often use mobile telecommunications technology such as Wi-Fi-equipped laptop or tablet computers and smartphones to work from coffee shops; others may use a desktop computer and a landline phone at their home. According to a Reuters poll, approximately "one in five workers around the globe, particularly employees in the Middle East, Latin America and Asia, telecommute frequently and nearly 10 percent work from home every day." In the 2000s, annual leave or vacation in some organizations is seen as absence from the workplace rather than ceasing work, and some office employees use telework to continue to check work e-mails while on vacation. Although the concepts of "telecommuting" and "telework" are closely related, there is a difference between the two. All types of technology-assisted work conducted outside of a centrally located work space (including work undertaken in the home, outside calls, etc.) are regarded as telework. Telecommuters often maintain a traditional office and usually work from an alternative work site from 1 to 3 days a week. Telecommuting refers more specifically to work undertaken at a location that reduces commuting time. These locations can be inside the home or at some other remote workplace, which is facilitated through a broadband connection, computer or phone lines, or any other electronic media used to interact and communicate. As a broader concept than telecommuting, telework has four dimensions in its definitional framework: work location, that can be anywhere outside of a centralized organizational work place; usage of ICTs (information and communication technologies) as technical support for telework; time distribution, referring to the amount of time replaced in the traditional workplace; and the diversity of employment relationships between employer and employee, ranging from contract work to traditional full-time employment. In the 1990s, telecommuting became the subject of pop culture attention. In 1995, the motto that "work is something you do, not something you travel to" was coined. Variations of this motto include: "Work is something we DO, not a place that we GO" and "Work is what we do, not where we are." Telecommuting has been adopted by a range of businesses, governments and not-for-profit organizations. Organizations may use telecommuting to reduce costs (telecommuting employees do not require an office or cubicle, a space which has to be rented or purchased, provided with lighting and climate control, etc.). Some organizations adopt telecommuting to improve workers' quality of life, as teleworking typically reduces commuting time and time stuck in traffic jams. As well, teleworking may make it easier for workers to balance their work responsibilities with family roles (e.g., caring for children or elderly parents). Some organizations adopt teleworking for environmental reasons, as telework can reduce congestion and air pollution, as it can reduce the number of cars on the roads.
Views: 4449 The Audiopedia
What is PANEL DISCUSSION? What does PANEL DISCUSSION mean? PANEL DISCUSSION meaning & explanation
 
02:23
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is PANEL DISCUSSION? What does PANEL DISCUSSION mean? PANEL DISCUSSION meaning - PANEL DISCUSSION definition - PANEL DISCUSSION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A panel discussion, or simply a panel, involves a group of people gathered to discuss a topic in front of an audience, typically at scientific, business or academic conferences, fan conventions, and on television shows. Panels usually include a moderator who guides the discussion and sometimes elicits audience questions, with the goal of being informative and entertaining. Film panels at fan conventions have been credited with boosting box office returns by generating advance buzz. The typical format for a discussion panel includes a moderator in front of an audience. Television shows in the English-speaking world that feature a discussion panel format include Real Time with Bill Maher, Loose Women,The Nightly Show with Larry Wilmore, as well as segments of the long-running Meet the Press. Quiz shows featuring this format, such as QI and Never Mind the Buzzcocks, are called panel games. Panels at sci-fi fan conventions, such as San Diego Comic-Con and New York Comic-Con, have become increasingly popular; there are typically long lines to get access to the panels. The panels often feature advance looks at upcoming films and video games. Panels and the early screenings at conventions have been credited as increasing the popularity of blockbuster films in recent years. One of the earliest film panels was at the 1976 San Diego Comic-Con, when publicist Charles Lippincott hosted a slideshow—in front of a "somewhat skeptical" audience—for an upcoming film called Star Wars. Five years later, the Blade Runner panel at the 1981 San Diego Comic-Con featured a film featurette, before featurettes were popular. At the 2000 event, the The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring preview panel ushered in today's era of hugely popular panels.
Views: 16672 The Audiopedia
What is INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING? What does INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING mean?
 
02:06
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING? What does INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING mean? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems or organizations. Industrial engineers work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, man-hours, machine time, energy and other resources that do not generate value. According to the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers, they figure out how to do things better, they engineer processes and systems that improve quality and productivity. Industrial engineering is concerned with the development, improvement, and implementation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or processes. While industrial engineering is a longstanding engineering discipline subject to (and eligible for) professional engineering licensure in most jurisdictions, its underlying concepts overlap considerably with certain business-oriented disciplines such as operations management. Depending on the sub-specialties involved, industrial engineering may also be known as, or overlap with, operations research, systems engineering, manufacturing engineering, production engineering, management science, management engineering, ergonomics or human factors engineering, safety engineering, or others, depending on the viewpoint or motives of the user.
Views: 28207 The Audiopedia
What is INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION? What does INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION mean?
 
06:04
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION? What does INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION mean? INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION meaning - INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION definition - INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Intercultural communication is a form of communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups. It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds. Intercultural communication is sometimes used synonymously with cross-cultural communication. In this sense it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted. With regard to intercultural communication proper, it studies situations where people from different cultural backgrounds interact. Aside from language, intercultural communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures, languages and customs of people from other countries. Intercultural communication plays a role in social sciences such as anthropology, cultural studies, linguistics, psychology and communication studies. Intercultural communication is also referred to as the base for international businesses. There are several cross-cultural service providers around who can assist with the development of intercultural communication skills. Research is a major part of the development of intercultural communication skills. Cross-cultural business communication is very helpful in building cultural intelligence through coaching and training in cross-cultural communication, cross-cultural negotiation, multicultural conflict resolution, customer service, business and organizational communication. Cross-cultural understanding is not just for incoming expats. Cross-cultural understanding begins with those responsible for the project and reaches those delivering the service or content. The ability to communicate, negotiate and effectively work with people from other cultures is vital to international business. The problems in intercultural communication usually come from problems in message transmission. In communication between people of the same culture, the person who receives the message interprets it based on values, beliefs, and expectations for behavior similar to those of the person who sent the message. When this happens, the way the message is interpreted by the receiver is likely to be fairly similar to what the speaker intended. However, when the receiver of the message is a person from a different culture, the receiver uses information from his or her culture to interpret the message. The message that the receiver interprets may be very different from what the speaker intended. Attribution is the process in which people look for an explanation of another person's behavior. When someone does not understand another, he/she usually blames the confusion on the other's "stupidity, deceit, or craziness". Effective communication depends on the informal understandings among the parties involved that are based on the trust developed between them. When trust exists, there is implicit understanding within communication, cultural differences may be overlooked, and problems can be dealt with more easily. The meaning of trust and how it is developed and communicated vary across societies. Similarly, some cultures have a greater propensity to be trusting than others.
Views: 48796 The Audiopedia
What is INTERNAL AUDIT? What does INTERNAL AUDIT mean? INTERNAL AUDIT meaning & explanation
 
03:29
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is INTERNAL AUDIT? What does INTERNAL AUDIT mean? INTERNAL AUDIT meaning - INTERNAL AUDIT definition - INTERNAL AUDIT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. Internal auditing is a catalyst for improving an organization's governance, risk management and management controls by providing insight and recommendations based on analyses and assessments of data and business processes. With commitment to integrity and accountability, internal auditing provides value to governing bodies and senior management as an objective source of independent advice. Professionals called internal auditors are employed by organizations to perform the internal auditing activity. The scope of internal auditing within an organization is broad and may involve topics such as an organization's governance, risk management and management controls over: efficiency/effectiveness of operations (including safeguarding of assets), the reliability of financial and management reporting, and compliance with laws and regulations. Internal auditing may also involve conducting proactive fraud audits to identify potentially fraudulent acts; participating in fraud investigations under the direction of fraud investigation professionals, and conducting post investigation fraud audits to identify control breakdowns and establish financial loss. Internal auditors are not responsible for the execution of company activities; they advise management and the Board of Directors (or similar oversight body) regarding how to better execute their responsibilities. As a result of their broad scope of involvement, internal auditors may have a variety of higher educational and professional backgrounds. The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) is the recognized international standard setting body for the internal audit profession and awards the Certified Internal Auditor designation internationally through rigorous written examination. Other designations are available in certain countries. In the United States the professional standards of the Institute of Internal Auditors have been codified in several states' statutes pertaining to the practice of internal auditing in government (New York State, Texas, and Florida being three examples). There are also a number of other international standard setting bodies. Internal auditors work for government agencies (federal, state and local); for publicly traded companies; and for non-profit companies across all industries. Internal auditing departments are led by a Chief Audit Executive ("CAE") who generally reports to the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, with administrative reporting to the Chief Executive Officer (In the United States this reporting relationship is required by law for publicly traded companies).
Views: 54255 The Audiopedia
What is REDLINING? What does REDLINING mean? REDLINING meaning, definition & explanation
 
03:31
✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is REDLINING? What does REDLINING mean? REDLINING meaning - REDLINING pronunciation - REDLINING definition - REDLINING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In the United States, redlining is the practice of denying services, either directly or through selectively raising prices, to residents of certain areas based on the racial or ethnic makeups of those areas. While some of the most famous examples of redlining regard denying financial services such as banking or insurance, other services such as health care or even supermarkets, can be denied to residents (or in the case of businesses like the aforementioned supermarkets, simply moved impractically far away from such residents) to carry out redlining. The term "redlining" was coined in the late 1960s by John McKnight, a sociologist and community activist. It refers to the practice of marking a red line on a map to delineate the area where banks would not invest; later the term was applied to discrimination against a particular group of people (usually by race or sex) irrespective of geography. During the heyday of redlining, the areas most frequently discriminated against were black inner city neighborhoods. For example, in Atlanta in the 1980s, a Pulitzer Prize-winning series of articles by investigative-reporter Bill Dedman showed that banks would often lend to lower-income whites but not to middle- or upper-income blacks. The use of blacklists is a related mechanism also used by redliners to keep track of groups, areas, and people that the discriminating party feels should be denied business or aid or other transactions. In the academic literature, redlining falls under the broader category of credit rationing. Reverse redlining occurs when a lender or insurer targets nonwhite consumers, not to deny them loans or insurance, but rather to charge them more than could be charged to a comparable white consumer. "As a consequence of redlining, neighborhoods that local banks deemed unfit for investment were left underdeveloped or in disrepair. Attempts to improve these neighborhoods with even relatively small-scale business ventures were commonly obstructed by financial institutions that continued to label the underwriting as too risky or simply rejected them outright. When existing businesses collapsed, new ones were not allowed to replace them, often leaving entire blocks empty and crumbling. Consequently African Americans in those neighborhoods were frequently limited in their access to banking, healthcare, retail merchandise, and even groceries." according to blackpast.org contributor Brent Gaspaire. Redlining paralyzed the housing market, lowered property values in certain areas and encouraged landlord abandonment. As abandonment increased, the population density became lower. Abandoned buildings served as havens for drug dealing and other illegal activity, increasing social problems and reluctance of people to invest in these areas. The film Revolution '67 examines the practice of redlining that occurred in Newark, New Jersey in the 1960s.
Views: 12515 The Audiopedia
What is RECEPTIONIST? What does RECEPTIONIST mean? RECEPTIONIST meaning, definition & explanation
 
06:48
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is RECEPTIONIST? What does RECEPTIONIST mean? RECEPTIONIST meaning - RECEPTIONIST pronunciation - RECEPTIONIST definition - RECEPTIONIST explanation - How to pronounce RECEPTIONIST? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A receptionist is an employee taking an office or administrative support position. The work is usually performed in a waiting area such as a lobby or front office desk of an organization or business. The title receptionist is attributed to the person who is employed by an organization to receive or greet any visitors, patients, or clients and answer telephone calls. The term Front Desk is used in many hotels for an administrative department where a receptionist's duties also may include room reservations and assignment, guest registration, cashier work, credit checks, key control as well as mail and message service. Such receptionists are often called front desk clerks. Receptionists cover many areas of work to assist the businesses they work for, including setting appointments, filing, record keeping, and many other office tasks all for the sake of keeping things moving. The business duties of a receptionist may include answering visitors' enquiries about a company and its products or services, directing visitors to their destinations, sorting and handing out mail, answering incoming calls on multi-line telephones or, earlier in the 20th century, a switchboard, setting appointments, filing, records keeping, keyboarding/data entry and performing a variety of other office tasks, such as faxing or emailing. Some receptionists may also perform bookkeeping or cashiering duties. Some, but not all, offices may expect the receptionist to serve coffee or tea to guests, and to keep the lobby area tidy. A receptionist may also assume some security guard access control functions for an organization by verifying employee identification, issuing visitor passes, and observing and reporting any unusual or suspicious persons or activities. A receptionist is often the first business contact a person will meet at any organization. It is an expectation of most organizations that the receptionist maintains a calm, courteous and professional demeanor at all times, regardless of the visitor's behavior. Some personal qualities that a receptionist is expected to possess in order to do the job successfully include attentiveness, a well-groomed appearance, initiative, loyalty, maturity, respect for confidentiality and discretion, a positive attitude and dependability. At times, the job may be stressful due to interaction with many different people with different types of personalities, and being expected to perform multiple tasks quickly. Depending on the industry a receptionist position can have opportunities for networking in order to advance to other positions within a specific field. Some people may use this type of job as a way to familiarize themselves with office work, or to learn of other functions or positions within a corporation. Some people use receptionist work as a way to earn money while pursuing further educational opportunities or other career interests such as in the performing arts or as writers. While many persons working as receptionists continue in that position throughout their careers, some receptionists may advance to other administrative jobs, such as a customer service representative, dispatcher, interviewers, secretary, production assistant, personal assistant, or executive assistant. In smaller businesses, such as a doctor's or a lawyer's office, a receptionist may also be the office manager who is charged with a diversity of middle management level business operations. For example, in the hotel industry, the night-time receptionist's role is almost always combined with performing daily account consolidation and reporting, more particularly known as night auditing. When receptionists leave the job, they often enter other career fields such as sales and marketing, public relations or other media occupations.
Views: 35669 The Audiopedia
What is CREOLIZATION? What does CREOLIZATION mean? CREOLIZATION meaning & explanation
 
05:18
What is CREOLIZATION? What does CREOLIZATION mean? CREOLIZATION meaning - CREOLIZATION pronunciation - CREOLIZATION definition - CREOLIZATION explanation - How to pronounce CREOLIZATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World. As a result of colonization there was a mixture among people of indigenous, African, and European descent, which came to be understood as Creolization. Creolization is traditionally used to refer to the Caribbean; although not exclusive to the Caribbean it can be further extended to represent other diasporas. The mixing of people brought a cultural mixing which ultimately led to the formation of new identities. It is important to emphasize that creolization also is the mixing of the "old" and "traditional" with the "new" and "modern". Furthermore, creolization occurs when participants actively select cultural elements that may become part of or inherited culture. Robin Cohen states that creolization is a condition in which "the formation of new identities and inherited culture evolve to become different from those they possessed in the original cultures," and then creatively merge these to create new varieties that supersede the prior forms. According to Charles Stewart the concept of creolization originates during the 16th century, although, there is no date recording the beginning of the word creolization. The term creolization was understood to be a distinction between those individuals born in the "Old World" versus the New World. As consequence to slavery and the different power relations between different races creolization became synonymous with Creole, often of which was used to distinguish the master and the slave. The word Creole was also used to distinguish those Afro-descendants who were born in the New World in comparison to African-born slaves. The word creolization has evolved and changed to have different meaning at different times in history. What has not changed through the course of time is the context in which Creole has been used. It has been associated with cultural mixtures of African, European, and indigenous (in addition to other lineages in different locations) ancestry (e.g. Caribbeans). Creole has pertained to "African-diasporic geographical and historical specificity". With globalization, creolization has undergone a "remapping of worlds regions", or as Orlando Patterson would explain, "the creation of wholly new cultural forms in the transnational space, such as 'New Yorican' and Miami Spanish". Today, creolization refers to this mixture of different people and different cultures that merge to become one. Creolization as a relational process can enable new forms of identity formation and processes of communal enrichment through pacific intermixtures and aggregations, but its uneven dynamics remain a factor to consider whether in the context of colonization or globalization. The meeting points of multiple diasporas and the crossing and intersection of diasporas are sites of new creolizations. New sites of creolizations continue the ongoing ethics of the sharing of the world that has now become a global discourse which is rooted in English and French Caribbean. The cultural fusion and hybridization of new diasporas surfaces and creates new forms of creolization. There are different processes of creolization have shaped and reshaped the different forms of one culture. For example, food, music, and religion have been impacted by the creolization of today's world. Creolization has affected the elements and traditions of food. The blend of cooking that describes the mixture of African and French elements in the American South, particularly in Louisiana, and in the French Caribbean have been influenced by creolization. This mixture has led to the unique combination of cultures that led to cuisine of creolization, better known as creole cooking. These very creations of difference flavors particularly pertains to specific territory which is influenced by different histories and experiences.
Views: 3077 The Audiopedia
What is PHARMACOVIGILANCE? What does PHARMACOVIGILANCE mean? PHARMACOVIGILANCE meaning
 
07:30
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is PHARMACOVIGILANCE? What does PHARMACOVIGILANCE mean? PHARMACOVIGILANCE meaning - PHARMACOVIGILANCE definition - PHARMACOVIGILANCE explanation - How to pronounce PHARMACOVIGILANCE? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Pharmacovigilance (PV or PhV), also known as drug safety, is the pharmacological science relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products. The etymological roots for the word "pharmacovigilance" are: pharmakon (Greek for drug) and vigilare (Latin for to keep watch). As such, pharmacovigilance heavily focuses on adverse drug reactions, or ADRs, which are defined as any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, including lack of efficacy (the condition that this definition only applies with the doses normally used for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological disorder function was excluded with the latest amendment of the applicable legislation). Medication errors such as overdose, and misuse and abuse of a drug as well as drug exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding, are also of interest, even without an adverse event, because they may result in an adverse drug reaction. Information received from patients and healthcare providers via pharmacovigilance agreements (PVAs), as well as other sources such as the medical literature, plays a critical role in providing the data necessary for pharmacovigilance to take place. In fact, in order to market or to test a pharmaceutical product in most countries, adverse event data received by the license holder (usually a pharmaceutical company) must be submitted to the local drug regulatory authority. (See Adverse Event Reporting below.) Ultimately, pharmacovigilance is concerned with identifying the hazards associated with pharmaceutical products and with minimizing the risk of any harm that may come to patients. Companies must conduct a comprehensive drug safety and pharmacovigilance audit to assess their compliance with worldwide laws, regulations, and guidance. Pharmacovigilance has its own unique terminology that is important to understand. Most of the following terms are used within this article and are peculiar to drug safety, although some are used by other disciplines within the pharmaceutical sciences as well. Adverse drug reaction is a side effect (non intended reaction to the drug) occurring with a drug where a positive (direct) causal relationship between the event and the drug is thought, or has been proven, to exist. Adverse event (AE) is a side effect occurring with a drug. By definition, the causal relationship between the AE and the drug is unknown. Benefits are commonly expressed as the proven therapeutic good of a product but should also include the patient's subjective assessment of its effects. Causal relationship is said to exist when a drug is thought to have caused or contributed to the occurrence of an adverse drug reaction. Clinical trial (or study) refers to an organised program to determine the safety and/or efficacy of a drug (or drugs) in patients. The design of a clinical trial will depend on the drug and the phase of its development. Control group is a group (or cohort) of individual patients that is used as a standard of comparison within a clinical trial. The control group may be taking a placebo (where no active drug is given) or where a different active drug is given as a comparator. Dechallenge and rechallenge refer to a drug being stopped and restarted in a patient, respectively. A positive dechallenge has occurred, for example, when an adverse event abates or resolves completely following the drug's discontinuation. A positive rechallenge has occurred when the adverse event re-occurs after the drug is restarted. Dechallenge and rechallenge play an important role in determining whether a causal relationship between an event and a drug exists.
Views: 20743 The Audiopedia
What is URBAN DESIGN? What does URBAN DESIGN mean? URBAN DESIGN meaning, definition & explanation
 
03:09
What is URBAN DESIGN? What does URBAN DESIGN mean? URBAN DESIGN meaning - URBAN DESIGN definition - URBAN DESIGN explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Urban design is the process of designing and shaping cities, towns and villages. In contrast to architecture, which focuses on the design of individual buildings, urban design deals with the larger scale of groups of buildings, streets and public spaces, whole neighborhoods and districts, and entire cities, with the goal of making urban areas functional, attractive, and sustainable. Urban design is an inter-disciplinary subject that utilizes elements of many built environment professions, including landscape architecture, urban planning, architecture, civil and municipal engineering. It is common for professionals in all these disciplines to practice in urban design. In more recent times different sub-strands of urban design have emerged such as strategic urban design, landscape urbanism, water-sensitive urban design, and sustainable urbanism. Urban design demands a good understanding of a wide range of subjects from physical geography, through to social science, and an appreciation for disciplines, such as real estate development, urban economics, political economy and social theory. Urban design is about making connections between people and places, movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric. Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making, environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the creation of places with distinct beauty and identity. Urban design draws these and other strands together creating a vision for an area and then deploying the resources and skills needed to bring the vision to life. Urban design theory deals primarily with the design and management of public space (i.e. the 'public environment', 'public realm' or 'public domain'), and the way public places are experienced and used. Public space includes the totality of spaces used freely on a day-to-day basis by the general public, such as streets, plazas, parks and public infrastructure. Some aspects of privately owned spaces, such as building facades or domestic gardens, also contribute to public space and are therefore also considered by urban design theory. Important writers on urban design theory include Christopher Alexander, Peter Calthorpe, Gordon Cullen, Andres Duany, Jane Jacobs, Mitchell Joachim, Jan Gehl, Allan B. Jacobs, Kevin Lynch, Aldo Rossi, Colin Rowe, Robert Venturi, William H. Whyte, Camillo Sitte, Bill Hillier (Space syntax), Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk and Kelvin Campbell.
Views: 6978 The Audiopedia
What is VOCATIONAL EDUCATION? What does VOCATIONAL EDUCATION mean? VOCATIONAL EDUCATION meaning
 
01:39
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is VOCATIONAL EDUCATION? What does VOCATIONAL EDUCATION mean? VOCATIONAL EDUCATION meaning - VOCATIONAL EDUCATION definition - VOCATIONAL EDUCATION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in a trade, a craft, as a technician, or in support roles in professions such as engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, or law. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or practical activities and are traditionally non-academic but related to a specific trade or occupation. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career education or technical education. Vocational education can take place at the secondary, post-secondary, further education, and higher education level; and can interact with the apprenticeship system. At the post-secondary level, vocational education is often provided by highly specialized trade and Technical schools. Until recently, almost all vocational education took place in the classroom, or on the job site, with students learning trade skills and trade theory from accredited professors or established professionals. However, online vocational education has grown in popularity, and made it easier than ever for students to learn various trade skills and soft skills from established professionals in the industry.
Views: 55150 The Audiopedia
What is CULTURAL DIPLOMACY? What does CULTURAL DIPLOMACY mean? CULTURAL DIPLOMACY meaning
 
09:22
What is CULTURAL DIPLOMACY? What does CULTURAL DIPLOMACY mean? CULTURAL DIPLOMACY meaning - CULTURAL DIPLOMACY definition - CULTURAL DIPLOMACY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Cultural diplomacy a type of public diplomacy and soft power that includes the "exchange of ideas, information, art and other aspects of culture among nations and their peoples in order to foster mutual understanding." The purpose of cultural diplomacy is for the people of a foreign nation to develop an understanding of the nation's ideals and institutions in an effort to build broad support for economic and political goals. In essence "cultural diplomacy reveals the soul of a nation," which in turn creates influence. Though often overlooked, cultural diplomacy can and does play an important role in achieving national security aims. Culture is a set of values and practices that create meaning for society. This includes both high culture (literature, art, and education, which appeals to elites) and popular culture (appeals to the masses). This is what governments seek to show foreign audiences when engaging in cultural diplomacy. It is a type of soft power, which is the "ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments. It arises from a country's culture, political ideals and policies." This indicates that the value of culture is its ability to attract foreigners to a nation. Cultural diplomacy is also a component of public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is enhanced by a larger society and culture, but simultaneously public diplomacy helps to "amplify and advertise that society and culture to the world at large.” It could be argued that the information component of public diplomacy can only be fully effective where there is already a relationship that gives credibility to the information being relayed. This comes from knowledge of the other’s culture.” Cultural diplomacy has been called the “linchpin of public diplomacy” because cultural activities have the possibility to demonstrate the best of a nation. In this way, cultural diplomacy and public diplomacy are intimately linked. Richard T. Arndt, a former State Department cultural diplomacy practitioner, said "Cultural relations grow naturally and organically, without government intervention – the transactions of trade and tourism, student flows, communications, book circulation, migration, media access, inter-marriage – millions of daily cross-cultural encounters. If that is correct, cultural diplomacy can only be said to take place when formal diplomats, serving national governments, try to shape and channel this natural flow to advance national interests.” It is important to note that, while cultural diplomacy is, as indicated above, a government activity, the private sector has a very real role to play because the government does not create culture, therefore, it can only attempt to make a culture known and define the impact this organic growth will have on national policies. Cultural diplomacy attempts to manage the international environment by utilizing these sources and achievements and making them known abroad. An important aspect of this is listening- cultural diplomacy is meant to be a two-way exchange. This exchange is then intended to foster a mutual understanding and thereby win influence within the target nation. Cultural diplomacy derives its credibility not from being close to government institutions, but from its proximity to cultural authorities. It is seen as a silent weapon in gaining control over another nation with the use of non-violent methods to perpetrate a relationship of mutual understanding and support among the countries involved. Ultimately, the goal of cultural diplomacy is to influence a foreign audience and use that influence, which is built up over the long term, as a sort of good will reserve to win support for policies. It seeks to harness the elements of culture to induce foreigners to: - have a positive view of the country's people, culture and policies, - induce greater cooperation between the two nations, - aid in changing the policies or political environment of the target nation, - prevent, manage and mitigate conflict with the target nation.
Views: 2772 The Audiopedia
What is DESIGN MANAGEMENT? What does DESIGN MANAGEMENT mean? DESIGN MANAGEMENT meaning
 
02:28
What is DESIGN MANAGEMENT? What does DESIGN MANAGEMENT mean? DESIGN MANAGEMENT meaning - DESIGN MANAGEMENT definition - DESIGN MANAGEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Design management is a business discipline that uses project management, design, strategy, and supply chain techniques to control a creative process, support a culture of creativity, and build a structure and organization for design. The objective of design management is to develop and maintain a business environment in which an organization can achieve its strategic and mission goals through design, and by establishing and managing an efficient and effective system. Design management is a comprehensive activity at all levels of business (operational to strategic), from the discovery phase to the execution phase. "Simply put, design management is the business side of design. Design management encompasses the ongoing processes, business decisions, and strategies that enable innovation and create effectively-designed products, services, communications, environments, and brands that enhance our quality of life and provide organizational success." The discipline of design management overlaps with marketing management, operations management, and strategic management Traditionally, design management was seen as limited to the management of design projects, but over time, it evolved to include other aspects of an organization at the functional and strategic level. A more recent debate concerns the integration of design thinking into strategic management as a cross-disciplinary and human-centered approach to management. This paradigm also focuses on a collaborative and iterative style of work and an abductive mode of inference, compared to practices associated with the more traditional management paradigm. Over recent years, design has become a strategic asset in brand equity, differentiation, and product quality for many companies. More and more organizations apply design management to improve design-relevant activities and to better connect design with corporate strategy.
Views: 8047 The Audiopedia
What is CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING? What does CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING mean?
 
04:59
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING? What does CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING mean? CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING meaning - CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING definition - CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Construction engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the designing, planning, construction, and management of infrastructures such as roads, tunnels, bridges, airports, railroads, facilities, buildings, dams, and utilities. These technicians are unique such that they are a cross between civil engineers and construction managers. Construction engineering technologists learn the designing aspect much like civil engineers and construction site management functions much like construction managers. At the educational level, construction managers are not as focused on design work as they are on construction procedures, methods, and people management. Their primary concern is to deliver a project on time, within budget, and of the desired quality. The difference between a construction engineering technologist and a civil engineer is that civil engineering is an engineering discipline. Civil engineering students concentrate more on the design work, which is more analytical, gearing them toward a career as a design professional. This essentially requires them to take a multitude challenging design courses. Construction engineering students take basic design courses as well as construction management courses. This allows them to understand both basic design functions as well as the building requirements needed to design and build today's infrastructures. Depending on which career the construction engineer has chosen to follow, an entry-level design engineer normally provides support to project managers and assist with creating conceptual designs, scopes, and cost estimates for the planning and construction of approved projects. It should be noted that a career in design work does require a professional engineer license (PE). Individuals who pursue this career path are strongly advised to sit for the Engineer In Training exam (EIT) while in college as it takes five years (4 years in USA) post graduate to obtain the PE license. Entry-level construction manager positions are typically called project engineers or assistant project engineers. They are responsible for preparing purchasing requisitions, processing change orders, preparing monthly budgeting reports, and handling meeting minutes. The construction management position does not necessarily require a PE license; however possessing one does make the individual more marketable, as the PE license allows the individual to sign off on temporary structure designs. Construction engineers are problem solvers. They contribute to the creation of infrastructure that best meets the unique demands of its environment. They must be able to understand infrastructure life cycles. When compared and contrasted to design engineers, construction engineers bring to the table their own unique perspectives for solving technical challenges with clarity and imagination. While individuals considering this career path should certainly have a strong understanding of mathematics and science, many other skills are also highly desirable, including critical and analytical thinking, time management, people management, and good communication skills. Job prospects for construction engineers generally have a strong cyclical variation. For example, starting in 2008 - continuing until at least 2011 - job prospects have been poor due to the collapse of housing bubbles in many parts of the world. This sharply reduced demand for construction, forced construction professionals towards infrastructure construction and therefore increased the competition faced by established and new construction engineers. This increased competition, and a core reduction in quantity demand is in parallel with a possible shift in the demand for construction engineers due to the automation of many engineering tasks, overall resulting in reduced prospects for construction engineers. In early 2010 the United States construction industry had a 27% unemployment rate, this is nearly three times higher than the 9.7% national average unemployment rate. The construction unemployment rate (including tradesmen) is comparable to the United States 1933 unemployment rate - the lowest point of the Great Depression - of 25%.
Views: 19563 The Audiopedia
What is MANAGEMENT SCIENCE? What does MANAGEMENT SCIENCE mean? MANAGEMENT SCIENCE meaning
 
04:03
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is MANAGEMENT SCIENCE? What does MANAGEMENT SCIENCE mean? MANAGEMENT SCIENCE meaning - MANAGEMENT SCIENCE definition - MANAGEMENT SCIENCE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to economics, business, engineering, and other sciences. It uses various scientific research-based principles, strategies, and analytical methods including mathematical modeling, statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and meaningful management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems. In short, management sciences help businesses to achieve goals using various scientific methods. The field was initially an outgrowth of applied mathematics, where early challenges were problems relating to the optimization of systems which could be modeled linearly, i.e., determining the optima (maximum value of profit, assembly line performance, crop yield, bandwidth, etc. or minimum of loss, risk, costs, etc.) of some objective function. Today, management science encompasses any organizational activity for which the problem can be structured as a functional system so as to obtain a solution set with identifiable characteristics. Management science is concerned with a number of different areas of study: One is developing and applying models and concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems. The models used can often be represented mathematically, but sometimes computer-based, visual or verbal representations are used as well or instead. Another area is designing and developing new and better models of organizational excellence. Management science research can be done on three levels: 1. The fundamental level lies in three mathematical disciplines: probability, optimization, and dynamical systems theory. 2. The modeling level is about building models, analyzing them mathematically, gathering and analyzing data, implementing models on computers, solving them, experimenting with them—all this is part of management science research on the modeling level. This level is mainly instrumental, and driven mainly by statistics and econometrics. 3. The application level, just as in any other engineering and economics disciplines, strives to make a practical impact and be a driver for change in the real world. The management scientist's mandate is to use rational, systematic, science-based techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds. The techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military, medical, public administration, charitable groups, political groups or community groups. Its origins can be traced to operations research, which made its debut during World War II when the Allied forces recruited scientists of various disciplines to assist with military operations. In these early applications, the scientists utilized simple mathematical models to make efficient use of limited technologies and resources. The application of these models within the corporate sector became known as management science. In 1967 Stafford Beer characterized the field of management science as "the business use of operations research".
Views: 26501 The Audiopedia
What is SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS? What does SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS mean? SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS meaning
 
03:14
✪✪✪✪✪ WORK FROM HOME! Looking for WORKERS for simple Internet data entry JOBS. $15-20 per hour. SIGN UP here - http://jobs.theaudiopedia.com ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS? What does SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS mean? SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS meaning - SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS definition - SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS explanation - How to pronounce SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Self-consciousness is an acute sense of self-awareness. It is a preoccupation with oneself, as opposed to the philosophical state of self-awareness, which is the awareness that one exists as an individual being; although some writers use both terms interchangeably or synonymously. An unpleasant feeling of self-consciousness may occur when one realizes that one is being watched or observed, the feeling that "everyone is looking" at oneself. Some people are habitually more self-conscious than others. Unpleasant feelings of self-consciousness are sometimes associated with shyness or paranoia. When feeling self-conscious, one becomes aware of even the smallest of one's own actions. Such awareness can impair one's ability to perform complex actions. Adolescence is believed to be a time of heightened self-consciousness. A person with a chronic tendency toward self-consciousness may be shy or introverted. Unlike self-awareness, which in a philosophical context is being conscious of oneself as an individual, self-consciousness, being excessively conscious of one's appearance or manner, can be a problem at times. Self-consciousness is often associated with shyness and embarrassment, in which case a lack of pride and low self-esteem can result. In a positive context, self-consciousness may affect the development of identity, for it is during periods of high self-consciousness that people come the closest to knowing themselves objectively. Self-consciousness affects people in varying degrees, as some people are constantly self-monitoring or self-involved, while others are completely oblivious about themselves. Psychologists frequently distinguish between two kinds of self-consciousness, private and public. Private self-consciousness is a tendency to introspect and examine one's inner self and feelings. Public self-consciousness is an awareness of the self as it is viewed by others. This kind of self-consciousness can result in self-monitoring and social anxiety. Both private and public self-consciousness are viewed as personality traits that are relatively stable over time, but they are not correlated. Just because an individual is high on one dimension doesn't mean that he or she is high on the other. Different levels of self-consciousness affect behavior, as it is common for people to act differently when they "lose themselves in a crowd". Being in a crowd, being in a dark room, or wearing a disguise creates anonymity and temporarily decreases self-consciousness (see deindividuation). This can lead to uninhibited, sometimes destructive behavior.
Views: 9393 The Audiopedia
What is TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP? What does TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP mean?
 
05:07
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new, improved version, videos at - http://www.theaudiopedia.com . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP? What does TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP mean? TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP meaning - TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP definition - TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Transformational leadership is a style of leadership where a leader works with subordinates to identify needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of a group. Transformational leadership serves to enhance the motivation, morale, and job-performance of followers through a variety of mechanisms; these include connecting the follower's sense of identity and self to a project and to the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers in order to inspire them and to raise their interest in the project; challenging followers to take greater ownership for their work, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers, allowing the leader to align followers with tasks that enhance their performance. The concept of transformational leadership was initially introduced by James V. Downton, the first to coin the term "Transformational leadership", a concept further developed by leadership expert and presidential biographer James MacGregor Burns. According to Burns, transformational leadership can be seen when "leaders and followers make each other advance to a higher level of morality and motivation." Through the strength of their vision and personality, transformational leaders are able to inspire followers to change expectations, perceptions, and motivations to work towards common goals. Unlike in the transactional approach, it is not based on a "give and take" relationship, but on the leader's personality, traits and ability to make a change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals. Transforming leaders are idealized in the sense that they are a moral exemplar of working towards the benefit of the team, organization and/or community. Burns theorized that transforming and transactional leadership were mutually exclusive styles. Later, researcher Bernard M. Bass expanded upon Burns' original ideas to develop what is today referred to as Bass’ Transformational Leadership Theory. According to Bass, transformational leadership can be defined based on the impact that it has on followers. Transformational leaders, Bass suggested, garner trust, respect, and admiration from their followers. Bernard M. Bass (1985), extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership. Bass introduced the term "transformational" in place of "transforming." Bass added to the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational leadership could be measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance. The extent to which a leader is transformational, is measured first, in terms of his influence on the followers. The followers of such a leader feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect for the leader and because of the qualities of the transformational leader are willing to work harder than originally expected. These outcomes occur because the transformational leader offers followers something more than just working for self-gain; they provide followers with an inspiring mission and vision and give them an identity. The leader transforms and motivates followers through his or her idealized influence (earlier referred to as charisma), intellectual stimulation and individual consideration. In addition, this leader encourages followers to come up with new and unique ways to challenge the status quo and to alter the environment to support being successful. Finally, in contrast to Burns, Bass suggested that leadership can simultaneously display both transformational and transactional leadership. According to Bass, transformational leadership encompasses several different aspects, including: Emphasizing intrinsic motivation and positive development of followers; Raising awareness of moral standards; Highlighting important priorities; Fostering higher moral maturity in followers; Creating an ethical climate (share values, high ethical standards); Encouraging followers to look beyond self-interests to the common good; Promoting cooperation and harmony; Using authentic, consistent means; Using persuasive appeals based on reason;
Views: 14100 The Audiopedia
What is BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY? What does BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY mean? BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY meaning
 
02:04
What is BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY? What does BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY mean? BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY meaning - BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY definition - BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) is the "application of science of behavior change to real world problems". or "A process that creates a safety partnership between management and employees that continually focuses people's attentions and actions on theirs, and others, daily safety behavior." BBS "focuses on what people do, analyzes why they do it, and then applies a research-supported intervention strategy to improve what people do". At its very core BBS is based on a larger scientific field called organizational behavior management. In a safety management system based upon the hierarchy of hazard control, BBS may be applied to internalise hazard avoidance strategies or administrative controls (including use of personal protective equipment), but should not be used in preference to the implementation of reasonably practicable safety measures further up the hierarchy. To be successful a BBS program must include all employees, from the CEO to the front line workers including hourly, salary, union employees, contractors and sub-contractors. To achieve changes in behavior, a change in policy, procedures and/or systems most assuredly will also need some change. Those changes cannot be done without buy-in and support from all involved in making those decisions. BBS is not based on assumptions, personal feeling, and/or common knowledge. To be successful, the BBS program used must be based on scientific knowledge.
Views: 8582 The Audiopedia
What is CONTRACT MANAGEMENT? What does CONTRACT MANAGEMENT mean?
 
04:40
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is CONTRACT MANAGEMENT? What does CONTRACT MANAGEMENT mean? CONTRACT MANAGEMENT definition - CONTRACT MANAGEMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Contract management or contract administration is the management of contracts made with customers, vendors, partners, or employees. The personnel involved in contract administration required to negotiate, support and manage effective contracts are often expensive to train and retain. Contract management includes negotiating the terms and conditions in contracts and ensuring compliance with the terms and conditions, as well as documenting and agreeing on any changes or amendments that may arise during its implementation or execution. It can be summarized as the process of systematically and efficiently managing contract creation, execution, and analysis for the purpose of maximizing financial and operational performance and minimizing risk. Common commercial contracts include employment letters, sales invoices, purchase orders, and utility contracts. Complex contracts are often necessary for construction projects, goods or services that are highly regulated, goods or services with detailed technical specifications, intellectual property (IP) agreements, outsourcing and international trade. Most larger contracts require the effective use of contract management software to aid administration among multiple parties. A study has found that for "42% of enterprises...the top driver for improvements in the management of contracts is the pressure to better assess and mitigate risks" and additionally,"nearly 65% of enterprises report that contract lifecycle management (CLM) has improved exposure to financial and legal risk." During the post-award phase, it is important to ensure that contract conditions and terms are met, but it is also critical to take a closer look for items such as unrecorded liabilities, under-reported revenue or overpayments. If these items are overlooked, margin may be negatively impacted. A contract compliance audit will often commence with an opportunity review to identify the highest risk areas. Having a dedicated contract compliance (and/or governance) program in place has been shown to result in a typical recovery of 2-4% and sometimes as high as 20%. Current thinking about contract management in complex relationships is shifting from a compliance “management” to a “governance” perspective, with the focus on creating a governance structure in which the parties have a vested interest in managing what are often highly complex contractual arrangements in a more collaborative, aligned, ?exible, and credible way. In 1979, Nobel laureate Oliver Williamson wrote that the governance structure is the “framework within which the integrity of a transaction is decided.” He further added that “because contracts are varied and complex, governance structures vary with the nature of the transaction.” (See also relational contract). Eriksson and Westerberg (2011); Li, Arditi, and Wang (2012); Chen and Manley (2014), and Cardenas, Voordijk, and Dewulf (2017) have hypothesized, developed and extensively tested conceptual models in which relevant project governance instruments and factors were identified and related to the performance of construction projects. A collaborative governance framework has four components: A relationship management structure (how the parties work together to make both day to day operational decisions as well as strategic decisions) A joint performance and transformation management process designed to track the overall performance of the partnership An exit management plan as a controlling mechanism to encourage the organizations to make ethical, proactive changes for the mutual benefit of all the parties. Compliance to special concerns and regulations, which include the more traditional components of contract compliance.
Views: 25791 The Audiopedia
What is HUMANITARIAN CRISIS? What does HUMANITARIAN CRISIS mean? HUMANITARIAN CRISIS meaning
 
03:14
What is HUMANITARIAN CRISIS? What does HUMANITARIAN CRISIS mean? HUMANITARIAN CRISIS meaning - HUMANITARIAN CRISIS definition - HUMANITARIAN CRISIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people. It may be an internal or external conflict and usually occurs throughout a large land area. Local, national and international responses are necessary in such events. Each humanitarian crisis is caused by different factors and as a result, each different humanitarian crisis requires a unique response targeted towards the specific sectors affected. This can result in either short-term or long-term damage. Humanitarian crises can either be natural disasters, man-made disasters or complex emergencies. In such cases, complex emergencies occur as a result of several factors or events that prevent a large group of people from accessing their fundamental needs, such as food, clean water or safe shelter. Examples of humanitarian crises include armed conflicts, epidemics, famine, natural disasters and other major emergencies. If such a crisis causes large movements of people it could also become a refugee crisis. As such, humanitarian crises are often interconnected and complex and several national and international agencies play roles in the repercussions of the incidences. There is no simple categorization of humanitarian crises. Different communities and agencies tend to have definitions related to the concrete situations they face. A local fire service will tend to focus on issues such as flooding and weather induced crises. Medical and health related organizations are naturally focused on sudden crises to the health of a community. An ongoing or lingering pandemic may amount to a humanitarian crisis, especially where there are increasing levels of virulence, or rates of infection as in the case of AIDS, bird flu or Tuberculosis. Major health-related problems such as cancer, global warming typically require an accentuated or punctuated mass-event to justify a label of "crisis" or "disaster". The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) lists categories which include different types of natural disasters, technological disasters (i.e. hazardous material spills, Chernobyl-type of nuclear accidents, chemical explosions) and long-term man-made disasters related to "civil strife, civil war and international war". Internationally, the humanitarian response sector has tended to distinguish between natural disasters and complex emergencies which are related to armed conflict and wars.
Views: 1812 The Audiopedia
What is VESTIBULAR HYPERACUSIS? What does VESTIBULAR HYPERACUSIS mean?
 
03:47
What is VESTIBULAR HYPERACUSIS? What does VESTIBULAR HYPERACUSIS mean? VESTIBULAR HYPERACUSIS meaning - VESTIBULAR HYPERACUSIS definition - VESTIBULAR HYPERACUSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Hyperacusis, means an over-sensitivity or intolerance for typically encountered everyday sounds. Sometimes the effects of hyperacusis can affect the vestibular system and cause problems of balance. This is termed vestibular hyperacusis and is equally disabling. Dr. Marsha Johnson, an audiologist in Oregon, was the first to widely publicize vestibular hyperacusis in her many articles. On October 25, 2010, the audiologist Dr. Teddy Caramoan Cheng presented a selected number of studies relating to Vestibular Hyperacusis at the UK's first Hyperacusis Seminar held at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Audiology Department. The Vestibular Hyperacusis presentation explored the anatomical, physiological, neurotological, audiological, ototoxicity-related, vestibulopathic, and presbyacusic evidence towards creating a Vestibular hyperacusis model. Vestibular hyperacusis is a mix-up between the brain's maintenance of upright balance and the sense of hearing. Instead of perceiving sounds as intolerable, the brain perceives them as movement sensations, disturbance to postural balance and/or visual focus (fixation). It is different from cochlear hyperacusis in that many people with vestibular hyperacusis can handle normal sounds just fine, but certain pitches and sounds that have higher than 85 decibels may trigger these sensations. People who have vestibular hyperacusis rarely have tinnitus co-morbidly, while as many as 86% of all CH sufferers have tinnitus. While symptoms of cochlear hyperacusis range from ear discomfort at normal sounds to panic reactions at soft sound, symptoms of vestibular hyperacusis are generally linked to balance and feelings of movement. Someone suffering from vestibular hyperacusis may feel dizzy, sick to their stomach, or confused when in the presence of loud noises. Fatigue, anxiety, confusion, and even loss of consciousness are also common. Headaches, feelings of pressure in the ear or clutching for something to hold onto in a noisy environment is not unusual. Around 1998, the exploration of CT-Scan images in vestibular hyperacusis patients led to discovery of a rare condition called, "Superior Semi-Circular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome" or SCDS. Clinically, a tell-tale sign of SCDS is either having Tullio's Phenomenon, i.e. sound causing a spinning sensation or abnormal eye movements called nystagmus, or Hennebert's sign (nystagmus following applied pressure into the external auditory canal) Where SCDS is confirmed in a comprehensive CT-scan, surgery may be offered to correct the dehiscence. Many cases of vestibular hyperacusis have the diagnosis of an unknown cause (i.e. idiopathic). Thus, most therapies that specifically target vestibular hyperacusis involve vestibular therapy, as with any vestibular disorder. An occupational therapist usually performs this type of therapy.
Views: 735 The Audiopedia
What is STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING? What does STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING mean?
 
08:24
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING? What does STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING mean? STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING meaning - STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING definition - STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Student-centered learning, also known as learner-centered education, broadly encompasses methods of teaching that shift the focus of instruction from the teacher to the student. In original usage, student-centered learning aims to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students. Student-centered instruction focuses on skills and practices that enable lifelong learning and independent problem-solving. Student-centered learning theory and practice are based on the constructivist learning theory that emphasizes the learner's critical role in constructing meaning from new information and prior experience. Student-centered learning puts students' interests first, acknowledging student voice as central to the learning experience. In a student-centered learning space, students choose what they will learn, how they will learn, and how they will assess their own learning. This is in contrast to traditional education, also dubbed "teacher-centered learning", which situates the teacher as the primarily "active" role while students take a more "passive", receptive role. In a teacher-centered classroom, teachers choose what the students will learn, how the students will learn, and how the students will be assessed on their learning. In contrast, student-centered learning requires students to be active, responsible participants in their own learning and with their own pace of learning. Usage of the term "student-centered learning" may also simply refer to educational mindsets or instructional methods that recognize individual differences in learners. In this sense, student-centered learning emphasizes each student's interests, abilities, and learning styles, placing the teacher as a facilitator of learning for individuals rather than for the class as a whole. Theorists like John Dewey, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, whose collective work focused on how students learn, have informed the move to student-centered learning. Carl Rogers' ideas about the formation of the individual also contributed to student-centered learning. Rogers wrote that "the only learning which significantly influences behavior is self discovered". Maria Montessori was also a forerunner of student-centered learning, where preschool children learn through independent self-directed interaction with previously presented activities. Self-determination theory focuses on the degree to which an individual’s behavior is self-motivated and 'self-determined'. When students are given the opportunity to gauge their learning, learning becomes an incentive. Student-centered learning means inverting the traditional teacher-centered understanding of the learning process and putting students at the centre of the learning process. In the teacher-centered classroom, teachers are the primary source for knowledge. On the other hand, in student-centered classrooms, active learning is strongly encouraged. Armstrong (2012) claimed that "traditional education ignores or suppresses learner responsibility". A further distinction from a teacher-centered classroom to that of a student-centered classroom is when the teacher acts as a facilitator, as opposed to instructor. In essence, the teacher’s goal in the learning process is to guide students into making new interpretations of the learning material, thereby 'experiencing' content, reaffirming Rogers' notion that "significant learning is acquired through doing". ....
Views: 19768 The Audiopedia
What is EDUCATION POLICY? What does EDUCATION POLICY mean? EDUCATION POLICY meaning & explanation
 
02:43
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is EDUCATION POLICY? What does EDUCATION POLICY mean? EDUCATION POLICY meaning - EDUCATION POLICY definition - EDUCATION POLICY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Education policy are the principles and government policy-making in the educational sphere, as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems. Education occurs in many forms for many purposes through many institutions. Examples include early childhood education, kindergarten through to 12th grade, two and four year colleges or universities, graduate and professional education, adult education and job training. Therefore, education policy can directly affect the education people engage in at all ages. Examples of areas subject to debate in education policy, specifically from the field of schools, include school size, class size, school choice, school privatization, tracking, teacher education and certification, teacher pay, teaching methods, curricular content, graduation requirements, school infrastructure investment, and the values that schools are expected to uphold and model. Issues in education policy also address problems within higher education. The Pell Institute analyzes the barriers experienced by teachers and students within community colleges and universities. These issues involve undocumented students, sex education, and federal grant aides. Education policy analysis is the scholarly study of education policy. It seeks to answer questions about the purpose of education, the objectives (societal and personal) that it is designed to attain, the methods for attaining them and the tools for measuring their success or failure. Research intended to inform education policy is carried out in a wide variety of institutions and in many academic disciplines. Important researchers are affiliated with departments of psychology, economics, sociology, and human development, in addition to schools and departments of education or public policy. Examples of education policy analysis may be found in such academic journals as Education Policy Analysis Archives and in university policy centers such as the National Education Policy Center housed at the University of Colorado Boulder University of Colorado Boulder.
Views: 17421 The Audiopedia
What is PHILANTHROPY? What does PHILANTHROPY mean? PHILANTHROPY meaning & definition
 
06:24
✪✪✪✪✪ We're uploading our new videos at - https://bittubers.com/profile/TheAudiopedia . Check us out and SUBSCRIBE there. ✪✪✪✪✪ ✪✪✪✪✪ The Audiopedia Android application, INSTALL NOW - https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wTheAudiopedia_8069473 ✪✪✪✪✪ What is PHILANTHROPY? What does PHILANTHROPY mean? PHILANTHROPY meaning & definition. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Philanthropy means etymologically, the love of humanity, in the sense of caring, nourishing, developing, and enhancing what it means to be human. In this meaning, it involves both the benefactor in their identifying and exercising their values, and the beneficiary in their receipt and benefit from the service or goods provided. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for public good, focusing on quality of life," which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century. The definition also serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g., focusing on material gain, and with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g., focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy has distinguishing features from charity; not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa, though there is a recognized degree of overlap in practice. A difference commonly cited is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish. The literal, classical definitions and understandings of the term philanthropy derive from its origins in the Greek ???????????, which combines the word ????? (philos) for "loving" and ???????? (anthropos) for "human being" (see below). The most conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for public good, focusing on quality of life". This combines the social scientific aspect developed in the century with the original humanistic tradition, and serves to contrast philanthropy with business (private initiatives for private good, focusing on material prosperity) and government (public initiatives for public good, focusing on law and order). These distinctions have been analyzed by Olivier Zunz, and others. Instances of philanthropy commonly overlap with instances of charity, though not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa. The difference commonly cited is that charity relieves the pains of social problems, whereas philanthropy attempts to solve those problems at their root causes (the difference between giving a hungry person a fish, and teaching them how to fish).
Views: 20678 The Audiopedia
What is PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT? What does PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT mean?
 
05:00
What is PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT? What does PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT mean? PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT meaning - PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT definition - PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Participatory development (PD) seeks to engage local populations in development projects. Participatory development has taken a variety of forms since it emerged in the 1970s, when it was introduced as an important part of the "basic needs approach" to development. Most manifestations of PD seek “to give the poor a part in initiatives designed for their benefit” in the hopes that development projects will be more sustainable and successful if local populations are engaged in the development process. PD has become an increasingly accepted method of development practice and is employed by a variety of organizations. It is often presented as an alternative to mainstream “top-down” development. There is some question about the proper definition of PD as it varies depending on the perspective applied. Two perspectives that can define PD are the "Social Movement Perspective" and the "Institutional Perspective": The "Social Movement Perspective" defines participation as the mobilization of people to eliminate unjust hierarchies of knowledge, power, and economic distribution. This perspective identifies the goal of participation as an empowering process for people to handle challenges and influence the direction of their own lives. Empowerment participation is when primary stakeholders are capable and willing to initiate the process and take part in the analysis. This leads to joint decision making about what should be achieved and how. While outsiders are equal partners in the development effort, the primary stakeholders are primus inter pares, i.e., they are equal partners with a significant say in decisions concerning their lives. Dialogue identifies and analyzes critical issues, and an exchange of knowledge and experiences leads to solutions. Ownership and control of the process rest in the hands of the primary stakeholders. The "Institutional Perspective" defines participation as the reach and inclusion of inputs by relevant groups in the design and implementation of a development project. The “Institutional Perspective” uses the inputs and opinions of relevant groups, or stakeholders in a community, as a tool to achieve a pre-established goal defined by someone external to the community involved. The development project, initiated by an activist external to the community involved, is a process by which problem issues in a community can be divided into stages, and this division facilitates assessment of when and to what degree a participatory approach is relevant. From an institutional perspective, there are four key stages of a development project: Research Stage, Design Stage, Implementation Stage, Evaluation Stage that are defined in later sections of this article. The institutional perspective can also be referred to as a "Project-Based Perspective". Advocates of PD emphasize a difference between participation as “an end in itself”, and participatory development as a “process of empowerment” for marginalized populations. This has also been described as the contrast between valuing participation for intrinsic rather than purely instrumental reasons. In the former manifestation, participants may be asked to give opinions without any assurance that these opinions will have an effect or may be informed of decisions after they have been made. In the latter form, proponents assert that PD tries to “foster and enhance people’s capability to have a role in their society’s development”. Participatory development employed in particular initiatives often involves the process of content creation. For example, UNESCO's Finding a Voice Project employs ICT for development initiatives. Local content creation and distribution contributes to the formation of local information networks. This is a bottom-up approach that involves extensive discussions, conversations, and decision-making with the target community. Community group members create content according to their capacities and interests. This process facilitates engagement with information and communication technology (ICT) with the goal of strengthening individual and social development. This participatory content creation is an important tool for poverty reduction strategies and creating a digitally inclusive knowledge society.
Views: 9313 The Audiopedia